A Technical Handbook on Bituminized Jute Paving Fabric (BJPF)

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A Technical Handbook on Bituminized Jute Paving Fabric (BJPF): A Partial Substitute and Reinforcement of Bitumen Mastic
By Swapan Kumar Ghosh
A Technical Handbook on Bituminized Jute Paving Fabric

Contents
Acknowledgment xi
Preface xiii
1 Introducing geotextile 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Historical background 2
1.3 Man-made geotextiles 3
1.4 Natural geotextiles 3
1.5 Methods of manufacturing geotextiles 4
1.6 Functions of geotextiles 5
1.6.1 Confinement 5
1.6.2 Separation 6
2 Jute and jute geotextile (JGT) 23
2.1 Jute fibre 23
2.2 Properties of jute fibre 25
2.3 Chemical composition and structure of jute fibre 28
2.4 Grading of jute fibre 30
2.5 Jute yarns 30
2.5.1 Processing of jute yarns 31
2.5.2 Jute yarn quality 31
2.6 Jute geotextile 32
2.6.1 Characteristics of jute geotextiles 34
2.6.2 Property advantages and specifi c end-uses of jute geotextiles 35
2.6.3 Potential areas of application of jute geotextiles 35
2.6.4 Types of jute geotextile 36
2.6.5 Market potential of jute geotextiles 39
2.6.6 Present status of jute geotextiles 40
3 Development of grey jute paving fabric (GJPF) 49
3.1 Idea behind designing and engineering of greyjute paving fabric 49
3.2 Experimental methods 50
3.2.1 Choice of raw jute fibre mixing (batchcomposition) 50
3.2.2 Preparation of woven fabric samples 52
3.2.3 Preparation of non-woven fabric samples 53
3.2.4 Preparation of single layered combined woven and non-woven fabric samples 62
3.2.5 Preparation of the grey jute paving fabric sample 62
3.2.6 Testing methods 65
3.2.7 Measurement of weight per unit area of the fabric samples 66
3.2.8 Measurement of fabric thickness of the fabric samples 66
3.2.9 Determination of tensile properties of the fabricsamples by wide width tensile testing method 67
3.2.10 Determination of static puncture resistance of the fabric samples 68
3.2.11 Determination of bursting strength of the fabric samples 68
3.2.12 Measurement of water permeability and permittivity of the fabric samples 68
3.2.13 Test procedure followed 69
3.2.14 Determination of water permeability of the fabric samples 69
3.2.15 Constant head method 70
3.2.16 Measurement of apparent opening size of the fabric samples 71
4 A comprehensive idea about bitumen 75
4.1 Introduction 75
4.2 Bitumen 77
4.3 General uses of bitumen17 79
4.4 Types of bitumen 79
4.4.1 Penetration grade18 79
4.4.2 Industrial grade bitumen 80
4.4.3 Cutback 80
4.4.4 Bitumen emulsion 80
4.4.5 Modified bitumen 81
4.4.6 Viscosity grade bitumen 82
4.5 Present grading system of bitumen 82
4.6 Properties of bitumen 83
4.6.1 Bitumen: a viscoelastic material 83
4.6.2 Adhesion properties of bitumen 84
4.7 Tests for bitumen 85
4.7.1 Viscosity test23 85
4.7.2 Softening point24 87
4.7.3 Ductility test25 88
4.7.4 Penetration test26 89
4.7.5 Penetration index or penetration ratio 90
4.7.6 Matter soluble in organic solvents 91
4.7.7 Rotating thin film oven test (RTFOT) 91
4.7.8 Pressure aging vessel (PAV) 93
4.7.9 Flash point 94
4.7.10 Specific gravity test19 96
4.7.11 Dynamic shear rheometer (DSR)30 96
4.7.12 Bending beam rheometer (BBR) 98
4.8 Failure mechanism of asphalt 100
4.8.1 Aging31 100
4.8.2 Oxidative hardening 100
4.8.3 Hardening due to loss of volatiles 101
4.8.4 Physical hardening 101
4.8.5 Educative hardening 101
4.8.6 Hardening of bitumen during storage 101
4.8.7 Hardening of bitumen on road 101
4.8.8 Rutting and permanent deformation 101
4.8.9 Fatigue cracking 102
4.8.10 Thermal cracking 102
4.8.11 Stripping 102
4.8.12 Moisture damage 102
4.9 Modified bitumen33 102
4.9.1 Advantages of modified bitumen 102
4.9.2 Types of modified bitumen 103
4.10 Different types and grades of bitumen 103
4.11 Bitumen requirements for various applications 104
4.12 Health, safety and environmental aspects 105
5 A comprehensive idea about paving fabric 109
5.1 Introduction 109
5.2 Pavements 114
5.3 Paving fabrics 115
5.4 Functions of paving geosynthetics 116
5.5 Design aspects of geosynthetics 119
5.6 General design considerations 121
5.6.1 Site selection 121
5.6.2 Pavement evaluation 121
5.6.3 Case studies 121
6 Development of bituminized jute paving fabric (BJPF) 125
6.1 Introduction 125
6.2 Laboratory simulation testing in CRRI,New Delhi, India 125
6.2.1 Physical tests on aggregates 125
6.2.2 Specific gravity and water absorption test 125
6.2.3 Impact test 126
6.2.4 Shape test 127
6.2.5 Stripping test for aggregates 127
6.2.6 Physical tests on bitumen 127
6.2.7 Asphalt retention testing of bitumen treated jutepaving fabric 128
6.2.8 Beam fatigue testing 132
6.2.9 Wheel tracking test 134
6.3 Bituminization of grey jute paving fabric (GJPF) 135
7 Pilot and bulk field trials of bituminized jute paving fabric (BJPF) 141
7.1 Introduction 141
7.2 Pilot field trial 141
7.3 Commercial field trial – site 1 143
7.4 Commercial field trial – site 2 146
Index 151

Acknowledgement
The author expresses his sincere gratitude to Jute Technology Mission (Mini Mission – IV, Scheme- 7.1), sponsored by National Jute Board (NJB), Ministry of Textiles, Government of India for providing the platform to the authors to fabricate the paper. The author is indebted to the then Hon’ble Secretary Shri Arijit Banerjee I.F.S., for his valued support at various stages of the progress of this research work. The author is very much thankful to Shri Tapobrata Sanyal, Chief Consultant, National Jute Board (NJB), Ministry of Textiles, Government of India for his consistent cooperation and wise guidance throughout in successfully shaping this book. Thanks are also due to Shri D.C. Baheti, Executive Director, M/s. Gloster Limited, 21 Strand Road, Kolkata-700 001 and M/s. Gladstone Lyall Industrial Co-operative Society Ltd., Kolkata and Indian Jute Mills Association (IJMA), India. The author is also thankful to the Director, Central Road Research Institute (CRRI), New Delhi, India.

The author express his heartiest thanks to the then Hon’ble Vice Chancellor University of Calcutta and Hon’ble Mayor, Kolkata, India for their kind permissions to carry out this research work alongwith its commercial fi eld trial respectively.

Finally, the author extends his thanks and affection to Shri Murari Mohan Mondal and Shri Rajib Bhattacharyya, Senior Research Fellows and Teaching Associates of Department of Jute and Fibre Technology, Institute of Jute Technology, University of Calcutta, West Bengal, India, along with Shri Sambhu Nath Dey, Laboratory Attendant of the Department for their consistent support and contribution in accolading this research work into the shape of a book.


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