Automation in Textile Machinery: Instrumentation and Control System Design Principles

7:29 AM
Automation in Textile Machinery: Instrumentation and Control System Design Principles
By L. Ashok Kumar, M Senthil kumar
Automation in Textile Machinery

Contents
Organization of the Book ...................................................................... xxi
About This Book ....................................................................xxiii
Preface ............................................................................. xxv
Acknowledgments ...........................................................xxvii
Authors ............................................................................... xxix 

1. Control Systems Engineering ..................................................................1
1.1 Introduction ...................................................................................................................1
1.2 Electrical Terminology .................................................................................................1
1.2.1 Inductance .......................................................................................................2
1.2.2 Impedance .......................................................................................................3
1.2.3 Amplitude .......................................................................................................3
1.2.4 Phase ................................................................................................................3
1.2.5 Measurement of Voltage ................................................................................5
1.2.6 Measurement of Small Voltages ...................................................................5
1.2.7 Measurement of Current ...............................................................................6
1.2.8 Measurement of Small Currents ..................................................................6
1.2.9 Noise ................................................................................................................7
1.2.10 Interference Noise ..........................................................................................7
1.2.11 Screen Circuits ................................................................................................7
1.2.12 Avoid Signal or Ground Loops ....................................................................7
1.2.13 Electronic Noise ..............................................................................................8
1.2.14 Frequency Response and Filtering ..............................................................8
1.2.15 Potential Divider ............................................................................................9
1.2.16 Operational Amplifiers ............................................................................... 10
1.2.17 The Non-Inverting Buffer ........................................................................... 10
1.2.18 Operational Amplifier Properties .............................................................. 11
1.2.19 Operational Amplifier Circuits—Unity-Gain Non-Inverting Buffer ... 12
1.2.20 Non-Inverting Voltage Amplifier ............................................................... 13
1.2.21 Differential Voltage Amplifier .................................................................... 13
1.2.22 Instrumentation Amplifier ......................................................................... 13
1.2.23 Current Amplifier......................................................................................... 14
1.2.24 Potentiostat .................................................................................................... 14
1.2.25 Galvanostat.................................................................................................... 14
1.2.26 Active Filter ................................................................................................... 15
1.3 Cell Design for Electrochemistry ............................................................................. 17
1.3.1 The Working Electrode ................................................................................ 17
1.3.2 The Counter Electrode (or Secondary or Auxiliary Electrode) ............. 18
1.3.3 The Reference Electrode .............................................................................. 18
1.3.4 Composition .................................................................................................. 19
1.3.5 Solution Flow ................................................................................................ 19
1.3.6 The Rotating Disk Electrode ....................................................................... 19
1.4 Principles of Control Systems .................................................................................... 19
1.4.1 Open-Loop Control System ..........................................................................20
1.4.2 Closed-Loop Control System........................................................................ 21
1.4.3 Automatic Control System ............................................................................ 24
1.4.3.1 Functions of Automatic Control ................................................... 24
1.4.3.2 Elements of Automatic Control ....................................................25
1.4.3.3 Feedback Control System Block Diagram...................................26
1.4.3.4 Stability of Automatic Control Systems ......................................28
1.4.3.5 Two Position Control Systems ......................................................29
1.4.3.6 Proportional Control Systems ......................................................29
1.4.3.7 Proportional-Integral-Derivative Control Systems ................... 32
1.4.3.8 Controllers .................................................................. 32
1.5 Summary .....................................................................34
References .....................................................................................35

2. Instrumentation ............................................................................... 37
2.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................. 37
2.1.1 Sensor and Transmitter ................................................................................. 37
2.1.2 Primary Measuring Element Selection and Characteristics....................38
2.1.2.1 Response Time ................................................................................ 39
2.1.2.2 Accuracy ..........................................................................................40
2.1.2.3 Precision ..........................................................................................40
2.1.2.4 Sensitivity ........................................................................................ 41
2.1.2.5 Dead Band ....................................................................................... 41
2.1.2.6 Installation Problems ..................................................................... 41
2.1.3 Signal Transmission ...................................................................................... 41
2.1.3.1 Signal Types .................................................................................... 41
2.1.3.2 Standard Signal Ranges ................................................................ 41
2.1.3.3 Electronic Transmitter Adjusted .................................................. 41
2.1.4 Transmission System Dynamics ..................................................................42
2.1.4.1 Transmission Lag ...........................................................................42
2.1.4.2 Transmitter Gain ............................................................................44
2.1.4.3 Smart Transmitters.........................................................................44
2.1.4.4 Smart Transmitter Microprocessor-Based Features ..................45
2.1.5 Characteristics of Instruments .....................................................................46
2.1.5.1 Static Characteristics ......................................................................46
2.2 Order of Control and Measurements Systems ........................................................47
2.2.1 Zero Order Control Systems ........................................................................47
2.2.2 First Order Control Systems .........................................................................47
2.2.3 Second Order Control Systems ....................................................................48
2.3 Temperature Measurement Systems ........................................................................49
2.3.1 Thermocouple Temperature Detectors .......................................................50
2.4 Instrumentation and Control: Pressure Detectors ................................................. 52
2.4.1 Bellows-Type Detectors ................................................................................. 52
2.4.2 Bourdon Tube-Type Detectors ......................................................................53
2.4.3 Resistance-Type Transducers .......................................................................53
2.4.4 Strain Gauge Pressure Transducer ..............................................................54
2.4.5 Strain Gauge Used in a Bridge Circuit ........................................................55
2.4.6 Resistance-Type Transducers ...................................................................55
2.4.7 Inductance-Type Transducers ..................................................................55
2.4.8 Differential Transformer ...........................................................................56
2.4.9 Capacitive-Type Transducers ................................................................... 57
2.4.9.1 Detection Circuitry ..................................................................58
2.4.10 Pressure Detector Functions ....................................................................58
2.5 Angular Displacement .............................................................................................59
2.5.1 Potentiometers ............................................................................................ 59
2.6 Encoders .....................................................................................................................60
2.6.1 Tachometers ................................................................................................ 61
2.7 Linear Position ........................................................................................................... 62
2.7.1 Potentiometers ............................................................................................ 62
2.8 Level Detectors .......................................................................................................... 62
2.8.1 Gauge Glass ................................................................................................63
2.8.2 Reflex Gauge Glass ....................................................................................64
2.8.3 Ball Float ......................................................................................................64
2.8.4 Chain Float ..................................................................................................65
2.8.5 Magnetic Bond Method ............................................................................66
2.8.6 Conductivity Probe Method ..................................................................... 67
2.8.7 Differential Pressure Level Detectors ..................................................... 67
2.8.8 Closed Tank, Dry Reference Leg ............................................................. 67
2.8.9 Closed Tank, Wet Reference Leg ............................................................. 69
2.8.10 Density Compensation .............................................................................. 69
2.8.10.1 Specific Volume ........................................................................ 69
2.8.10.2 Reference Leg Temperature Considerations ........................ 70
2.8.11 Level Detection Circuitry .........................................................................71
2.8.11.1 Remote Indication ....................................................................71
2.8.11.2 Environmental Concerns ........................................................72
2.9 Instrumentation and Control Module on Flow Detectors ..................................73
2.9.1 Head Flow Meters ......................................................................................73
2.9.1.1 Orifice Plate ............................................................................... 74
2.9.1.2 Venturi Tube ..............................................................................75
2.9.1.3 Pitot Tube ...................................................................................75
2.9.2 Hot-Wire Anemometer .............................................................................. 76
2.9.3 Electromagnetic Flowmeter ..................................................................... 76
2.9.4 Ultrasonic Flow Equipment ..................................................................... 76
2.9.5 Steam Flow Detection ...............................................................................77
2.9.6 Simple Mass Flow Detection System ......................................................77
2.9.6.1 Flow Circuitry ...........................................................................79
2.9.6.2 Use of Flow Indication .............................................................79
2.9.6.3 Environmental Concerns ........................................................80
2.10 Instrumentation and Control Module on Position Indicators ............................80
2.11 Switches ................................................................................82
2.11.1 Limit Switches ............................................................................................82
2.11.2 Reed Switches .............................................................................................82
2.12 Variable Output Devices ..........................................................................................83
2.12.1 Potentiometer..............................................................................................83
2.12.2 Linear Variable Differential Transformers .............................................83
2.12.3 Position Indication Circuitry ....................................................................85
2.13 Summary .........................................................86
References ..........................................................................86

3. Programmable Logic Control Systems ............................................................................89
3.1 Introduction ...............................................................................................................89
3.1.1 Ladder Logic ...............................................................................................89
3.1.2 Programming ............................................................................................. 91
3.1.3 PLC Connections .......................................................................................92
3.1.4 Ladder Logic Inputs ..................................................................................93
3.1.5 Ladder Logic Outputs ...............................................................................93
3.2 Programmable Logic Controller Hardware ..........................................................94
3.2.1 Inputs and Outputs ...................................................................................95
3.2.1.1 Inputs ...........................................................................................96
3.2.1.2 Output Modules .........................................................................98
3.2.2 Relays ......................................................................................................... 100
3.2.3 Electrical Wiring Diagrams .................................................................... 101
3.2.3.1 Joint International Committee Wiring Symbols .................. 101
3.3 Logical Sensors ........................................................................................................ 103
3.3.1 Sensor Wiring ........................................................................................... 103
3.3.1.1 Switches ..................................................................................... 103
3.3.1.2 Transistor–Transistor Logic .................................................... 103
3.3.1.3 Sinking/Sourcing ..................................................................... 104
3.3.1.4 Solid-State Relays ..................................................................... 108
3.3.2 Presence Detection ................................................................................... 108
3.3.2.1 Contact Switches....................................................................... 108
3.3.2.2 Reed Switches ........................................................................... 108
3.3.2.3 Optical (Photoelectric) Sensors .............................................. 108
3.3.2.4 Capacitive Sensors.................................................................... 110
3.3.2.5 Inductive Sensors ..................................................................... 112
3.3.2.6 Ultrasonic .................................................................................. 112
3.3.2.7 Hall Effect .................................................................................. 112
3.4 Logical Actuators .................................................................................................... 113
3.4.1 Solenoids ................................................................................................... 113
3.4.2 Valves ......................................................................................................... 113
3.4.3 Cylinders ................................................................................................... 115
3.4.4 Hydraulics ................................................................................................. 116
3.4.5 Pneumatics ................................................................................................ 116
3.4.6 Motors ........................................................................................................ 117
3.5 Boolean Logic Design ............................................................................................. 118
3.5.1 Boolean Algebra ....................................................................................... 118
3.5.2 Logic Design ............................................................................................. 119
3.5.2.1 Process Description .................................................................. 120
3.5.2.2 Control Description ................................................................. 120
3.5.2.3 Define Inputs and Outputs ..................................................... 120
3.5.2.4 Boolean Equation ..................................................................... 120
3.5.3 Common Logic Forms ............................................................................. 121
3.5.3.1 Complex Gate Forms ............................................................. 121
3.5.3.2 Multiplexers ............................................................................122
3.6 Programmable Logic Controller Operation ........................................................ 123
3.6.1 Operation Sequence ................................................................................. 124
3.6.1.1 The Input and Output Scans ................................................ 125
3.6.1.2 The Logic Scan ........................................................................ 126
3.6.2 Programmable Logic Controller Status ................................................ 127
3.6.3 Memory Types .......................................................................................... 127
3.6.4 Software-Based Programmable Logic Controllers ............................. 128
3.7 Latches, Timers, Counters, and More ................................................................... 128
3.7.1 Latches ....................................................................................................... 129
3.7.2 Timers ........................................................................................................ 130
3.7.3 Counters .................................................................................................... 132
3.7.4 Master Control Relays (MCRs) ............................................................... 134
3.8 Structured Logic Design ........................................................................................ 134
3.8.1 Process Sequence Bits .............................................................................. 135
3.8.2 Timing Diagrams ..................................................................................... 136
3.9 Flowchart-Based Design ........................................................................................ 137
3.10 Programmable Logic Controller Memory ........................................................... 141
3.10.1 Memory Addresses .................................................................................. 141
3.10.2 Program Files ............................................................................................ 142
3.10.3 Data Files ................................................................................................... 143
3.10.4 Ladder Logic Functions .......................................................................... 144
3.11 Analog Inputs and Outputs .................................................................................. 145
3.11.1 Analog Inputs ........................................................................................... 146
3.11.1.1 Analog Inputs with a PLC .................................................... 148
3.11.2 Analog Outputs........................................................................................ 148
3.11.2.1 Pulse Width Modulation Outputs ....................................... 148
3.12 Continuous Actuators ............................................................................................ 149
3.12.1 Electric Motors ......................................................................................... 149
3.12.1.1 Basic Brushed DC Motors ..................................................... 150
3.12.1.2 AC Motors ............................................................................... 151
3.12.1.3 Brushless DC Motors ............................................................. 153
3.12.1.4 Stepper Motors ........................................................................ 153
3.12.1.5 Wound Field Motors .............................................................. 155
3.12.2 Hydraulics ................................................................................................. 156
3.13 Continuous Control ................................................................................................ 156
3.13.1 Control of Logical Actuator Systems .................................................... 157
3.13.2 Control of Continuous Actuator Systems ............................................. 158
3.13.2.1 Block Diagrams....................................................................... 158
3.13.2.2 Proportional Controllers ....................................................... 159
3.13.3 PID Control Systems ................................................................................ 159
3.13.3.1 Water Tank Level Control ..................................................... 160
3.14 Summary ...................................................... 161
References ................................................... 161 

4. Instrumentation and Control Systems on Blowroom Sequence............................... 163
4.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 163
4.2 Bale Management .................................................................................................... 163
4.2.1 Objective Measurement and Quality Control ....................................... 164
4.3 Mixing Bale Opener ................................................................................................ 165
4.4 Bale Pluckers ............................................................................................................ 165
4.5 Compact Blowroom ................................................................................................ 166
4.5.1 Automatic Bale Opener ............................................................................. 166
4.5.2 The Multi-Function Separator .................................................................. 167
4.5.3 Mixer–Cleaner Combination with High Production Cleaner ............. 167
4.5.3.1 Computer Controlled Cleaning Efficiency ............................. 168
4.5.3.2 Servo Motors ............................................................................... 169
4.5.4 Foreign Part Separator .............................................................................. 169
4.6 Detection and Removal of Contamination .......................................................... 169
4.6.1 Premier Fiber Eye ....................................................................................... 169
4.6.1.1 Double Value with Premier Fiber Eye ..................................... 170
4.6.2 Textile Cotton Eye—Contaminant Removal in Cotton ........................ 171
4.6.3 Detection and Removal of Contamination by Securomat ................... 171
4.6.3.1 Operating Principle .................................................................... 171
4.6.3.2 Operator Interface ...................................................................... 172
4.6.4 Cotton Contamination Cleaning Machine ............................................. 174
4.7 Dust and Metal Extraction Machine .................................................................... 175
4.8 Automatic Waste Evacuation System (Intermittent) .......................................... 175
4.9 Chute Feeding Systems .......................................................................................... 176
4.10 Summary ............................................................................ 176
References ................................................................. 176

5. Instrumentation and Control System in Carding ........................................................ 179
5.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 179
5.1.1 Function of Carding .................................................................................. 180
5.1.2 Autoleveling ............................................................................................... 180
5.1.2.1 Different Types of Autolevelers ................................................ 180
5.2 Measuring Devices ................................................................................................. 182
5.3 Sensofeed.................................................................................................................. 183
5.4 Flat Control .............................................................................................................. 184
5.5 Precision Flat Setting .............................................................................................. 185
5.6 IGS Top Automatic Grinding System ................................................................... 185
5.7 Carding Drives ........................................................................................................ 185
5.8 Coiler Sliver Stop Motion .......................................................................................185
5.9 Thermistor Protection Unit ....................................................................................186
5.10 Safety Switches ........................................................................................................186
5.11 On Card Filter ..........................................................................................................186
5.12 Continuous Quality and Production Monitoring ...............................................186
5.13 Card Manager ..........................................................................................................187
5.14 Summary ................................................................................. 187
References ............................................................................... 187

6. Instrumentation and Control Systems in Draw Frame and Speed Frame .............. 189
6.1 Control Systems in Draw Frame ............................................................................. 189
6.1.1 Introduction .................................................................................................. 189
6.1.2 Autoleveler .................................................................................................... 189
6.1.2.1 Principle of Measurement and Auto Levelling ........................ 190
6.1.2.2 Application Concept .................................................................... 191
6.1.2.3 Position and Range of Correction .............................................. 191
6.1.2.4 Storage of the Measured Values ................................................. 191
6.1.3 Sliver Data ..................................................................................................... 192
6.1.4 Sliver Alarm .................................................................................................. 192
6.1.4.1 Principle of Measurement ........................................................... 192
6.1.5 Sliver Watch .................................................................................................. 193
6.1.5.1 Contamination Detection on Draw Frames and Lappers ...... 193
6.1.5.2 Yarning Principle of Sliver Watch .............................................. 193
6.1.5.3 Sliver Watch on Heather Yarns................................................... 193
6.1.5.4 Production and Quality Data ..................................................... 194
6.1.6 Sliver Monitoring ......................................................................................... 194
6.1.7 Automation Material Transport ................................................................. 194
6.1.7.1 Cubican .......................................................................................... 194
6.1.7.2 CANlog—Handling System for Cans on Trolleys .................. 194
6.1.7.3 CAN Link—Draw Frame Interlinking System ........................ 195
6.1.7.4 Cannyone ....................................................................................... 195
6.1.8 Sliver Expert System .................................................................................... 195
6.1.8.1 Machine Setting Recommendations .......................................... 195
6.1.8.2 Rapid Elimination of Faults ........................................................ 196
6.1.9 Integrated Draw Frame ............................................................................... 196
6.2 Control Systems in Comber ..................................................................................... 196
6.2.1 Sliver Lap Machine ...................................................................................... 196
6.2.2 Ribbon Lap Machine ................................................................................... 197
6.2.2.1 Ribbon Breakage Photo Cell ....................................................... 197
6.2.2.2 Comber Photo Control for Entry Lamp .................................... 197
6.2.3 Computer Aided Top Performance ........................................................... 197
6.2.4 Automatic Lap Transport ............................................................................ 198
6.2.4.1 SERVOlap....................................................................................... 198
6.3 Speed Frame Controls .............................................................................................. 198
6.3.1 Introduction .................................................................................................. 198
6.3.2 Multimotor Drive System ........................................................................... 199
6.3.3 Automatic Winding Tension Compensating Device ..............................200
6.3.3.1 Pneumostop Unit..........................................................................200
6.3.3.2 Photo Master or Back Creel Stop Motion Unit .........................200
6.3.3.3 Roving Stop Motion .....................................................................200
6.3.3.4 Roving Eye..................................................................................... 201
6.3.4 Monitoring .................................................................................................... 201
6.4 Automatic Doffing .................................................................................................... 201
6.5 Summary ........................................................................... 202
References ................................................................... 202

7. Instrumentation and Control Systems in Ring and Rotor Spinning ......................205
7.1 Control Systems in Ring Spinning .........................................................................205
7.1.1 Existing Manual Operations.....................................................................205
7.1.1.1 Need to Automate .....................................................................206
7.1.2 The Possibilities for Automation ..............................................................206
7.1.2.1 Drive of Highest Operational Reliability-PLCV ..................206
7.1.2.2 Electrical Controls ....................................................................206
7.1.2.3 Other Automations ................................................................... 207
7.1.3 Individual Spindle Monitoring ................................................................ 207
7.1.3.1 Three-Level Operator Guiding System ................................. 207
7.1.4 Piecing Devices ...........................................................................................208
7.1.5 Automations with Auto Doffer ................................................................208
7.1.5.1 Speed Control Through Inverter System ..............................208
7.1.5.2 SERVOtrail .................................................................................209
7.1.6 Ringdata ....................................................................................................... 210
7.1.6.1 Production Data Collection ..................................................... 210
7.1.6.2 Production and Single Data Collection ................................. 210
7.1.7 Magnetic Spinning ..................................................................................... 212
7.1.7.1 Active Magnetic Levitation Principles .................................. 212
7.1.7.2 Flux Density and Force from Circuit Theory ....................... 213
7.1.7.3 Typical Magnetic System Geometry and Control ................ 215
7.1.8 Monitoring and Control of Energy Consumption for Ring
Frames in Textile Mills .............................................................................. 216
7.1.8.1 Design of the System ................................................................ 217
7.1.8.2 The Input/Output Data of the System ................................... 217
7.1.8.3 The Features of the Instrument System................................. 218
7.2 Controls in Rotor Spinning ...................................................................................... 219
7.2.1 Tasks of Rotor Spinning ............................................................................ 219
7.2.1.1 Automations in Rotor Spinning .............................................220
7.2.2 Compact SpinBox ....................................................................................... 221
7.2.2.1 Adjustable BYPASS ................................................................... 221
7.2.3 Automatic Piecing Devices .......................................................................222
7.2.3.1 Piecing Principle .......................................................................222
7.2.4 Event Identification System: Electronically Controlled
Yarn Transfer ...............................................................................................223
7.2.5 Automatic Suction Devices ....................................................................... 224
7.2.5.1 New Suction System: Optimum Through-Flow .................. 224
7.2.6 Foreign Fiber Detection System ...............................................................225
7.2.6.1 Optical Measuring Principle Using Infrared Light .............225
7.2.6.2 Individual Corolab ABS System .............................................225
7.2.6.3 The Measuring Principle .........................................................226
7.2.7 Fault Recognition and Clearing ...............................................................226
7.2.8 Moiré and Nep Detection ..........................................................................227
7.2.8.1 Nep Detection ...........................................................................227
7.2.9 “Sliver-Stop” Function ...............................................................................227
7.2.10 Monitoring Devices ....................................................................................228
7.2.10.1 Precise Monitoring of Yarn Counts ........................................228
7.2.10.2 Spectrogram ..............................................................................228
7.2.10.3 Histogram ...............................................................................228
7.2.10.4 Variation-Length Curve ........................................................229
7.2.10.5 Alarm Functions ....................................................................229
7.2.10.6 Online Hairiness Monitoring on OE Rotor Spinning
Machines .................................................................................229
7.2.10.7 Principles of Operation of the Hairiness Measuring
Systems ....................................................................................229
7.2.10.8 UNIfeed®: The Universal Tube Supply System ..................230
7.2.10.9 Automatic Can Transport .....................................................230
7.2.10.10 Package Removal ....................................................................230
7.3 Summary ............................................................................. 231
References ..................................................................... 231

8. Control Systems in Cone Winding Machine ................................................................233
8.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................233
8.2 Electronic Yarn Clearer ..........................................................................................233
8.2.1 Capacitance Type .......................................................................................233
8.2.2 Photo-Cell Type ..........................................................................................234
8.3 Electronic Anti-Patterning Device ........................................................................235
8.3.1 Drum Lap Guard .......................................................................................235
8.4 Length and Diameter Measuring Device ............................................................235
8.5 Sensor-Monitored Winding Process ....................................................................235
8.6 The Informator: Central Operating and Control Unit .......................................236
8.7 Automatic Tension Controlling Device................................................................236
8.7.1 Direct Drive System—Auto Torque Transmission ................................236
8.8 Yarn Clearer .............................................................................................................238
8.9 Variable Material Flow Systems ............................................................................239
8.10 Winding Head Control ...........................................................................................240
8.11 Full Cone Monitors .................................................................................................240
8.12 Automatic Package Doffer .....................................................................................240
8.13 Cleaning and Dust Removal Systems ..................................................................241
8.14 Automation Variants ..............................................................................................241
8.15 Caddy Identification Systems ...............................................................................242
8.16 Spindle Identification .............................................................................................242
8.17 Package Quality Control ........................................................................................242
8.18 Variopack System ....................................................................................................243
8.19 Summary ......................................................... 243
References ........................................................................ 244

9. Instrumentation and Control Systems in the Warping and Sizing Machine ........ 245
9.1 Control Systems in Warping ................................................................................. 245
9.1.1 Introduction ................................................................................................ 245
9.1.2 Automatic Feed Control System .............................................................. 246
9.1.3 Automatic Tension Controller .................................................................. 247
9.1.3.1 Optostop Tensioner ................................................................ 248
9.1.3.2 Reliable Fault Detection ........................................................ 248
9.1.4 Automatic Warp Divider .......................................................................... 249
9.1.5 Automatic Warp Stop Motion .................................................................. 249
9.1.6 Precision Length Measuring Unit ......................................................... 251
9.1.7 Automatic Braking System ..................................................................... 251
9.1.8 Beam Pressing Device ............................................................................. 251
9.2 Measurement and Control Systems Used in Sizing ........................................... 252
9.2.1 Pre-Wet Sizing ..........................................................................................253
9.2.1.1 Compact Roller Arrangement ...............................................253
9.2.1.2 Eliminates Pre-Drying ...........................................................253
9.2.2 Temperature Control ...............................................................................254
9.2.3 Size Level Control ....................................................................................254
9.2.4 Automatic Tension Control on Single End Sizing ...............................255
9.2.5 Stretch Control ..........................................................................................255
9.2.6 Size Application Measurement Control ................................................256
9.2.7 Computer Slasher Control ...................................................................... 257
9.2.8 Auto Moisture Controller .......................................................................258
9.2.9 Evaluation of Sized Yarn ......................................................................... 259
9.2.10 Automatic Marking System (Diagram) ................................................. 259
9.3 Summary ................................................................. 259
References ................................................................ 260

10. Control Systems in Weaving ...................................................................... 261
10.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 261
10.2 Electronic Shedding ................................................................................................ 261
10.3 Electronic Jacquard .................................................................................................263
10.4 Automatic Pick Controller .....................................................................................263
10.5 Controls in Weft Insertion System ........................................................................263
10.6 Let-Off Electronic Control Warp Beam ...............................................................264
10.7 Electronic Take-Up Motion ....................................................................................265
10.7.1 Electronic Weft Detectors .......................................................................265
10.7.2 Weft Sensors .............................................................................................265
10.8 Warp Stop Motion ................................................................................................... 266
10.8.1 Classifications ........................................................................................... 266
10.8.2 The Warp Stop Motions for Large Width Weaving Machines .......... 266
10.8.2.1 The Harness Warp Stop Motions ......................................... 266
10.8.2.2 The Electro-Optical Warp Stop Motions ............................. 267
10.8.2.3 The Hayashi Optic-Electronic Warp Stop Motion ............. 267
10.8.2.4 The Warp and Reed Protector Motions ............................... 267
10.8.2.5 The Contactless Stop Motions ...............................................268
10.9 Electronic Controls and Monitoring Devices on Shuttle
Weaving Machines ............................................................................................. 268
10.9.1 Shuttle Flight Monitoring ....................................................................... 269
10.9.1.1 The Principle of Operation of Electronic Shuttle
Flight Monitoring ................................................................... 269
10.9.2 Electronic Monitoring Devices on Rapier Weaving Machines.......... 271
10.9.3 Real Time Monitoring and Planning for the Weave Room ............... 271
10.9.3.1 Color Mill ................................................................................. 272
10.9.3.2 Cockpit View ........................................................................... 272
10.9.3.3 Film Report .............................................................................. 272
10.10 Electronic Yarn Tension Control .......................................................................... 272
10.10.1 The Production Sensor ......................................................................... 273
10.10.2 The Central Unit .................................................................................... 273
10.10.3 The Three-Stop Connection................................................................. 274
10.10.3.1 Standard Reports ............................................................... 274
10.10.4 Connection Capacity of the Central Unit .......................................... 276
10.10.4.1 Data Assurance with a Mains Breakdown ....................277
10.10.4.2 Function Control ................................................................277
10.10.4.3 Distributed Control System..............................................277
10.10.4.4 Memory Card .....................................................................277
10.10.4.5 Handy Function Panel ......................................................277
10.10.5 Configuration of Loom Data System ..................................................277
10.10.6 Software for Loom Data ....................................................................... 278
10.10.7 Data Processing in the Air-Jet Weaving Machine ............................ 279
10.10.7.1 Intelligent Pattern Data Programming ...........................280
10.10.7.2 Network-Ready Touch-Screen Terminal ........................280
10.11 Sumo Drive System ................................................................................................280
10.11.1 Programmable Filling Tensioner ........................................................280
10.11.2 Automatic Pick Repair ..........................................................................280
10.11.3 Quick Style Change .............................................................................. 281
10.12 Electronic Selvedge Motions ................................................................................ 281
10.13 Weave Master Reporting Report and Formula Generator ............................... 281
10.13.1 Integrated Graphics .............................................................................. 282
10.13.2 Automatic Printing and Data Export ................................................. 282
10.14 WeaveMaster Production Scheduling ................................................................. 282
10.14.1 Planning Warps and Pieces: The Graphical Plan Board ................. 282
10.14.2 Printing of Warp Tickets and Piece Labels ....................................... 282
10.14.3 Warp Out Prediction and Yarn Requirements Calculation ............ 282
10.14.4 Looms with Ethernet Interface ............................................................283
10.15 Summary ...........................................................................283
References ............................................................283

11. Controls in Knitting .................................................................................285
11.1 Designing and Patterning ....................................................................................285
11.2 Electronic Jacquard ................................................................................................286
11.2.1 Pattern Computer ..................................................................................286
11.2.2 Binary Mechanism ................................................................................286
11.3 Control Systems...................................................................................................... 287
11.3.1 Feeding Zone ......................................................................................... 287
11.3.2 Feeding Cone Indicator ........................................................................ 287
11.3.3 Feeding Package Indicator ...................................................................288
11.3.4 Knitting Zone ........................................................................................288
11.3.5 Winding Length .................................................................................... 289
11.3.6 Oil Level Controller .............................................................................. 289
11.4 Individual Needle Selection .................................................................................290
11.5 Knitting Machine-Needle Detector .....................................................................290
11.6 Knit Master System ................................................................................................ 291
11.6.1 Machines with Surface-Driven Packages .......................................... 291
11.6.2 The Functions of the Knit Master System ......................................... 291
11.6.3 All Solid-State Doff Counter for Knitting.......................................... 292
11.7 Simodrive Sensor Measuring Systems ............................................................... 292
11.8 Monitoring Yarn Input Tension for Quality Control in Circular Knitting .... 293
11.8.1 Measuring System ................................................................................. 294
11.8.2 Representation of the Waveform by a Measured Value .................. 295
11.8.3 Defect Identification by Stitch Formation Differences .................... 295
11.9 Warp Knitting Machine Control ......................................................................... 296
11.9.1 Scanner Head ......................................................................................... 297
11.9.2 Hand Terminal ...................................................................................... 297
11.10 Summary ...................................................................... 297
References .......................................................................... 298

12. Controls in Testing Instruments .........................................................299
12.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................299
12.2 Fiber Properties ......................................................................................................299
12.2.1 Fiber Length ...........................................................................................300
12.2.2 Principle of Fiber Length Measurement ............................................300
12.3 Fiber Diameter Analyzer ......................................................................................300
12.4 Fiber Fineness ......................................................................................................... 301
12.5 Fineness and Maturity Testing ............................................................................302
12.5.1 Fiber Contamination Technology .......................................................303
12.6 High Volume Instrument ......................................................................................303
12.7 Advanced Fiber Information System ..................................................................304
12.8 Auto Sorter ..............................................................................................................306
12.9 Electronic Twist Tester ...........................................................................................306
12.10 Yarn Evenness Measuring Instruments .............................................................306
12.10.1 Photoelectric Method ...........................................................................306
12.10.2 Capacitance Method .............................................................................306
12.10.2.1 Choice of Measuring Indicator ........................................307
12.10.2.2 Normal and Inert Testing .................................................307
12.10.2.3 The Imperfections Indicator.............................................307
12.10.3 Infrared Sensing Method .....................................................................308
12.10.3.1 Keisokkis Laserspot ..........................................................308
12.10.4 Variation in Thickness under Compression Method .......................309
12.10.5 Classimat ................................................................................................ 310
12.11 Electronic Inspection Board ................................................................................. 312
12.11.1 Electronic Inspection Board Process for Yarn Appearance
Grade Evaluation ................................................................................... 312
12.12 Hairiness Measurement—Photoelectric Method .............................................. 313
12.12.1 Photoelectric Counting Method.......................................................... 313
12.13 Tensile Strength Testing of Textiles ..................................................................... 314
12.13.1 Breaking Force Measurement.............................................................. 315
12.13.2 The Instron Tensile Testing Instrument ............................................ 317
12.13.3 The Load Weighing System ................................................................. 317
12.14 Optical Trash Analysis Device ............................................................................. 318
12.15 Summary .......................................................................... 319
References ............................................................. 319

13. Automation and Control in Chemical Processing ....................................................... 321
13.1 Control Systems in Dyeing Process ...................................................................... 321
13.1.1 Novel Control Concepts .......................................................................... 322
13.1.2 Novel Control Schemes ........................................................................... 324
13.1.3 Fuzzy Logic Control ................................................................................ 325
13.1.4 Auto Jigger Controller System ............................................................... 326
13.1.5 Automatic Dispensing System ............................................................... 326
13.1.6 Online pH Measurement and Control .................................................. 327
13.1.6.1 Introduction ............................................................................ 327
13.1.6.2 pH Monitoring ........................................................................ 328
13.1.6.3 pH Control ............................................................................... 328
13.1.6.4 On–Off Control—Two Step ...................................................330
13.1.6.5 On–Off Control—Three Step ................................................330
13.1.6.6 On–Off Control of Two Reagents ......................................... 331
13.1.6.7 Proportional, Integral, and Derivative Control.................. 331
13.1.6.8 pH Control in the Dyeing of Polyamide ............................. 332
13.1.7 Indigo Dyeing ...........................................................................................338
13.1.7.1 The pH Value Guides the Way... ........................................... 339
13.1.8 Automatic Control of the Dyeing the Dosing of the Agents .............340
13.1.8.1 The Smart Gray Cells of the Controller ...............................340
13.1.9 Automation in Dyehouse ........................................................................ 341
13.1.10 Plant Manager System for Dyeing and Finishing ...............................342
13.2 Control Systems in Textile Finishing Machinery ...............................................343
13.2.1 Stenters ......................................................................................................343
13.2.1.1 Control of the Fabric Temperature .......................................344
13.2.1.2 Residual Moisture after Dryer..............................................346
13.3 Special Purpose Drying Machine and Felt Finishing Range ...........................348
13.3.1 Predryer.....................................................................................................348
13.3.2 Belt Stretcher .............................................................................................348
13.3.3 Compressive Shrinkage Unit for Tubular Knitted Fabrics ................348
13.3.4 Controls in Compressive Shrinkage Unit.............................................349
13.3.5 Air Relax Dryer ........................................................................................349
13.4 Digital Textile Printing Ink Technologies............................................................349
13.4.1 Process Color ............................................................................................350
13.4.1.1 Quality and Productivity ...................................................... 351
13.4.2 Advantages of Digital Printing .............................................................. 351
13.4.2.1 Advantages of Analog Printing ........................................... 352
13.4.3 Digital Printing Technologies ................................................................ 352
13.4.3.1 Hybrid Digital-Analog Printing Technologies................... 352
13.4.4 Continuous Multi-Level Deflected Inkjet .............................................353
13.4.5 Piezoelectric Shear Mode ........................................................................354
13.5 Summary ......................................................................355
References ......................................................................355

14. Automation in Garments ............................................................................ 357
14.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 357
14.2 Automated Fabric Inspection ................................................................................358
14.2.1 Strengths and Weaknesses of the Visual Fabric Inspection .............. 359
14.2.2 Requirements for the Automatic Fabric Inspection ............................ 359
14.2.2.1 The Inspection Process .......................................................... 361
14.2.2.2 The Reports ............................................................................. 361
14.2.2.3 New Generation in Fault Detection ..................................... 361
14.2.3 Inspecting Elastics ................................................................................... 362
14.2.4 I-Tex System .............................................................................................. 362
14.3 Automatic Pattern Making System .......................................................................363
14.3.1 The Requirements of Marker Planning ................................................363
14.3.2 The Design Characteristic of the Finished Garment .........................363
14.3.3 Computerized Marker Planning ...........................................................364
14.3.4 Optitex Marker Making ..........................................................................364
14.3.5 Pattern Design System ............................................................................365
14.3.5.1 Numonics Accugrid Digitizers ............................................366
14.4 Body Measurement System ...................................................................................366
14.4.1 System Design ..........................................................................................366
14.4.2 Sensor Design ........................................................................................... 367
14.4.3 System Software Design ......................................................................... 367
14.4.4 Theory of Operation ................................................................................367
14.4.5 Image Acquisition ....................................................................................368
14.4.6 Scanning Results ......................................................................................368
14.4.7 Measurement Extraction .........................................................................368
14.4.8 Actual Scan—Raw Data ..........................................................................368
14.4.9 Automatic Pattern Alteration Using Commercial Apparel CAD,
and the Virtual Try-On ........................................................................... 369
14.5 Automatic Fabric Spreading Machine.................................................................. 369
14.5.1 Cradle Feed Spreading System .............................................................. 370
14.6 Automatic Fabric Cutting Process ........................................................................ 371
14.6.1 Precision of Cut ........................................................................................ 371
14.6.1.1 Clean Edges ............................................................................. 371
14.6.1.2 Unscorched, Unfused Edges ................................................. 371
14.6.1.3 Support of the Lay .................................................................. 372
14.6.1.4 Consistent Cutting ................................................................. 372
14.6.2 Cutting and Spreading System .............................................................. 372
14.6.3 Continuous Cutting Conveyor System ................................................. 372
14.6.4 EasiMatch Software System ................................................................... 373
14.6.5 EasiCut Software System ........................................................................ 374
14.6.5.1 Powerful Variable Speed Motor ........................................... 374
14.6.6 Conveyorized Cutting System ............................................................... 374
14.6.7 Automatic Labeler Option ...................................................................... 375
14.7 Sewing ................................................................................ 375
14.7.1 Stitch Types ............................................................................................... 376
14.7.1.1 Sewing M/C Automation ...................................................... 377
14.7.2 Electronic Lockstitch Pocket Setter Sewing System ........................... 378
14.7.3 Automatic Two-Needle Hemmer Sleeves and Shirt Bottoms......... 378
14.7.3.1 Automatic Two-Needle Hemmer for Sleeves .................. 378
14.7.3.2 Automatic Two-Needle Coverstitch Hemmer for
Sleeves and Pockets ............................................................. 378
14.7.4 Automatic Clean Finish Elastic Waistband Station with
Fold-in-Half Stacker .............................................................................. 379
14.7.5 Computer-Controlled, Direct-Drive, High-Speed, One-Needle,
Lockstitch, and Zigzag Stitching Machine ........................................ 379
14.7.6 Direct-Drive, High-Speed, Needle-Feed, Lockstitch Machine
with an Automatic Thread Trimmer .................................................. 379
14.7.7 Automatic Short Sleeve Closing System ............................................380
14.7.8 Computer-Controlled Lockstitch Buttonholing Machine ...............380
14.7.8.1 Feed Mechanism Using a Stepping Motor ......................380
14.7.8.2 Bobbin Thread Winder ....................................................... 381
14.7.9 Automatic Placket Fusing, Cutting, and Stacking ........................... 381
14.7.9.1 Control Panel ........................................................................ 381
14.7.10 High-Speed, Over Lock/Safety Stitch Machine ............................... 382
14.8 Finishing Process ................................................................................................... 382
14.8.1 Fusing Interlining .................................................................................383
14.8.1.1 Making Sewing Easier and Increasing Production ........383
14.8.2 Permanent Fusing and Temporary Fusing ........................................383
14.8.2.1 Continuous Fusing Machine..............................................384
14.8.2.2 High Pressure Fusing Machine for Collars, Cuffs,
and Plackets ..........................................................................384
14.8.3 Pressing ..................................................................................................384
14.8.3.1 Press to Finish ......................................................................384
14.8.3.2 Pressing System with Automatic Segmented Frames ....384
14.9 Automatic Material Transport .............................................................................385
14.9.1 Garment Storage with a Simple Hook Release from Horizontal
to Vertical Position ................................................................................385
14.9.2 Packaging ...............................................................................................385
14.10 Summary .........................................................................386
References .................................................................386

15. CAD/CAM Solutions for Textiles ............................................................. 389
15.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................ 389
15.2 Textile Design Systems .......................................................................................... 389
15.2.1 Knitted Fabrics ...................................................................................... 390
15.2.2 Printed Fabrics ....................................................................................... 391
15.2.3 Illustrations/Sketch Pad Systems ....................................................... 391
15.2.4 Texture Mapping ................................................................................... 392
15.2.5 Embroidery Systems ............................................................................. 392
15.2.6 Design Desk—For Yarn Dyed and Dobby Woven Fabrics .............. 392
15.2.6.1 Yarn Development and Management ............................... 392
15.2.6.2 Weave Creator ...................................................................... 392
15.2.6.3 Design Creation ................................................................... 393
15.3 CAD/CAMs Effect on the Jacquard Weaving Industry .................................... 393
15.3.1 Jacquard Design History ....................................................................... 393
15.3.1.1 Industrial and Commercial Trends ................................... 394
15.3.1.2 The Designer .........................................................................395
15.3.1.3 Design Editing in Grid.........................................................396
15.3.1.4 Weave Creation .....................................................................396
15.3.1.5 Weave Mapper ......................................................................396
15.3.1.6 Simulation of Fabrics ........................................................... 396
15.4 Computer Aided Manufacturing .......................................................................... 397
15.4.1 The Software Fundamentals of Fashion Design ............................... 397
15.4.2 Vector-Based Programs ......................................................................... 397
15.4.3 Raster-Based Programs ......................................................................... 398
15.4.4 Common File Formats ........................................................................... 398
15.4.5 Texture Mapping .................................................................................... 399
15.5 CIM—Data Communications Standards for Monitoring of Textile
Spinning Processes ................................................................................................. 399
15.5.1 Data Communications ...........................................................................400
15.5.2 Network Function ..................................................................................400
15.5.3 Layered Network Model .......................................................................400
15.5.4 Analogy of the Three Layer Model and the Telephone System ......401
15.5.5 Manufacturing Network Topology .....................................................401
15.5.6 Machine-Level Network .......................................................................401
15.5.7 Work-Cell Network ................................................................................402
15.5.8 Data Storage System ..............................................................................402
15.5.9 Corporate Office Computers ................................................................402
15.5.10 Systems Integration ...............................................................................402
15.5.11 Components of a Communication Standard for Textiles .................403
15.5.12 Data Dictionary ......................................................................................403
15.5.13 Physical Layer and Protocol Stack .......................................................403
15.5.14 Application Layer and Common Data Structure ..............................403
15.5.15 Application of Relational Databases for Monitoring of Textile  Processes ........403
15.5.16 Interface to Uster SliverData System ...................................................404
15.5.17 Interface Using Proprietary Protocol ..................................................404
15.5.18 Interface Using Standard Protocols .....................................................405
15.5.19 Application of Common Database ......................................................405
15.5.20 Flexible Applications .............................................................................405
15.6 Summary ..................................................................................406
References .......................................................................406
Index ............................................................407

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