Denim: Manufacture, Finishing and Applications | Roshan Paul

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Denim: Manufacture, Finishing and Applications
Edited by Roshan Paul
Denim: Manufacture, Finishing and Applications

Contents
List of contributors xiii
Woodhead Publishing Series in Textiles xv
Preface xxiii
1 Denim and jeans: an overview 1
R. Paul
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Denim fabric manufacture 2
1.3 Manufacture and finishing of jeans 4
1.4 Novel applications and environmental aspects 8
1.5 Future trends 10
1.6 Conclusion 11
Sources of further information 11

Part One Denim fabric manufacture 13
2 Cotton fibre for denim manufacture 15
J. McLoughlin, S. Hayes and R. Paul
2.1 Introduction 15
2.2 Cotton cultivation 15
2.3 Fibre properties 17
2.4 Cotton fibre processing 20
2.5 Spinning of denim yarns 26
2.6 Developments in cotton for denim 32
2.7 Future trends 34
2.8 Conclusion 35
Sources of further information 35
References 36
3 Indigo dye and reduction techniques 37
R.B. Chavan
3.1 Introduction 37
3.2 Indigo popularity for denim 37
3.3 Dyes other than indigo 38
3.4 History of indigo 39
3.5 Indigo production 40
3.6 Indigo properties 48
3.7 Reduction of indigo 49
3.8 Traditional and modern dyeing methods 57
3.9 Future trends 59
3.10 Conclusion 61
References 61
4 Indigo dyeing technology for denim yarns 69
N. Meksi and M.F. Mhenni
4.1 Introduction 69
4.2 Evolution of indigo dyeing 70
4.3 Indigo dyeing techniques 73
4.4 Indigo dyeing machinery 82
4.5 Factors affecting indigo dyeing 89
4.6 Testing and quality control 94
4.7 Future trends 101
4.8 Conclusion 101
Sources of further information 102
Acknowledgement 102
References 102
5 Dyeing of denim yarns with non-indigo dyes 107
M. Sanchez
5.1 Introduction 107
5.2 General considerations 108
5.3 Options for non-indigo dyeing 112
5.4 Non-indigo dyes for fabric overdyeing 150
5.5 Modern colouration possibilities 153
5.6 Future trends 154
5.7 Conclusion 155
Sources of further information 155
References 156
6 Weaving technologies for manufacturing denim 159
M.A. Raina, Y.S. Gloy and T. Gries
6.1 Introduction 159
6.2 Historical aspects 159
6.3 Fibres for denim manufacture 160
6.4 Yarns for denim manufacture 162
6.5 Preparation of denim yarns 164
6.6 Technologies for denim weaving 167
6.7 Denim weaving machines 174
6.8 Weaving with intelligent machines 178
6.9 Manufacture of high quality denim 179
6.10 Future trends 185
6.11 Conclusion 185
References 186

Part Two Manufacture and finishing of jeans 189
7 Role of denim and jeans in the fashion industry 191
C. Regan
7.1 Introduction 191
7.2 Denim fabric and apparel business 192
7.3 Soft value of denim jeans 193
7.4 History of denim and jeans 193
7.5 Social influence of jeanswear 199
7.6 Cultural influence of denim work wear 200
7.7 Denim as luxury attire 205
7.8 Future trends 210
7.9 Conclusion 214
References 214
8 Joining techniques for denim jeans 219
S. Hayes and J. McLoughlin
8.1 Introduction 219
8.2 Seams in the construction of jeans 219
8.3 Stitch types in jeans manufacture 228
8.4 Sewing threads for jeans 236
8.5 Sewing needles for jeans 239
8.6 Machines for making jeans 246
8.7 Fabric feed systems 249
8.8 Stitching of denim jeans 254
8.9 Sewing faults and troubleshooting 259
8.10 Attaching fastenings on jeans 263
8.11 Future trends 268
8.12 Conclusion 268
Sources of further information 269
Acknowledgements 270
References 270
9 Dyeing technologies for denim garments 271
A.K. Sarkar
9.1 Introduction 271
9.2 Garment dyeing processes 272
9.3 Garment dyeing machinery 276
9.4 Advances in garment dyeing 278
9.5 Testing and quality assurance 281
9.6 Future trends 282
9.7 Conclusion 283
References 283
10 Digital printing techniques for denim jeans 287
J.M. Lucas, N.J.R. Belino, R.A. Miguel, M.M. Pereira and
L.S. Ribeiro
10.1 Introduction 287
10.2 Textile characteristics 289
10.3 Inkjet printing machines 291
10.4 Colour technology and management 294
10.5 Techniques for developing digital denim 301
10.6 Future trends 308
10.7 Conclusion 309
Sources of further information 309
References 310
11 Washing techniques for denim jeans 313
C.W. Kan
11.1 Introduction 313
11.2 Classification of washing techniques 315
11.3 Denim and jeans washing machines 336
11.4 Factors affecting washing effect 342
11.5 Troubleshooting in denim washing 346
11.6 Future trends 352
11.7 Conclusion 352
Sources of further information 353
Acknowledgement 353
References 353
12 Biotechnological washing of denim jeans 357
A. Colomera and H. Kuilderd
12.1 Introduction 357
12.2 Types of industrial enzymes 357
12.3 Enzymes for jeans washing 359
12.4 Biotechniques and process recipes 375
12.5 Factors affecting washing effectiveness 381
12.6 Backstaining phenomenon 389
12.7 Troubleshooting guidelines 391
12.8 Sustainable developments in washing 392
12.9 Future trends 402
12.10 Conclusion 402
Sources of further information 402
13 Reduced water washing of denim garments 405
B. Garcia
13.1 Introduction 405
13.2 Techniques for reducing water in denim washing 406
13.3 Industrial application scenarios 414
13.4 Factors affecting process effectiveness 418
13.5 Testing the effectiveness of washing 420
13.6 Future trends 422
13.7 Conclusion 422
References 423
14 Finishing of jeans and quality control 425
F. Kalaoglu and R. Paul
14.1 Introduction 425
14.2 Dry and wet finishing processes 425
14.3 Printing techniques 435
14.4 Finishing of denim fabrics 436
14.5 Functional finishing of denim jeans 439
14.6 Final operations and inspection 443
14.7 Quality control in jeans production 447
14.8 Future trends 457
14.9 Conclusion 457
Acknowledgements 458
References 458
15 Comfort aspects of denim garments 461
M.M. Mangat and L. Hes
15.1 Introduction 461
15.2 Comfort aspects of denim 461
15.3 Thermo-physiological comfort 462
15.4 Development of functional denim 464
15.5 Testing of comfort parameters 475
15.6 Future trends 477
15.7 Conclusion 478
References 478 

Part Three Novel applications and environmental aspects 481
16 Novel varieties of denim fabrics 483
A.K. Patra and A.K. Pattanayak
16.1 Introduction 483
16.2 Pseudo denim and generic denim 483
16.3 Reverse denim 488
16.4 Stretch denims 490
16.5 Denim of other fibres and blends 496
16.6 Biodegradable denims and their properties 498
16.7 Other types of denim 501
16.8 Future trends 503
16.9 Conclusion 504
References 504
17 Non-apparel applications of denim 507
Ö.E. İşmal and L. Yıldırım
17.1 Introduction 507
17.2 Classification of non-apparel denim products 508
17.3 Analysis of the current situation 508
17.4 Other interesting developments 519
17.5 Future trends 521
17.6 Conclusion 523
Sources of further information 523
References 525
18 Recovery and recycling of denim waste 527
A. Luiken and G. Bouwhuis
18.1 Introduction 527
18.2 Problem with denim waste 528
18.3 Recovery techniques for denim waste 530
18.4 Recycling of denim waste 531
18.5 Development of recycled products 535
18.6 Environmental benefits of denim recycling 536
18.7 Future trends 538
18.8 Conclusion 538
Sources of further information 539
19 Effluent treatment in denim and jeans manufacture 541
N. Uzal
19.1 Introduction 541
19.2 Characteristics of wastewater 542
19.3 Techniques for treating wastewater 543
19.4 Wastewater recovery and reuse 553
19.5 Case studies 556
19.6 Future trends 557
19.7 Conclusion 557
References 558
20 Environmental impacts of denim manufacture 563
W. Schrott and R. Paul
20.1 Introduction 563
20.2 Cotton production for denim 565
20.3 Dyes for denim dyeing 566
20.4 Dyeing auxiliaries 569
20.5 Combined dyeing processes 571
20.6 Minimal application technologies 572
20.7 Auxiliaries and finishing chemicals 573
20.8 Garment washing and finishing 575
20.9 Distribution and retail 577
20.10 Future trends 578
20.11 Conclusion 578
Sources of further information 579
References 579
Index 581

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