Fundamentals and Advances in Knitting Technology | Sadhan C. Ray

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Fundamentals and Advances in Knitting Technology
by Sadhan C. Ray
Fundamentals and Advances in Knitting Technology

Contents
Foreword v
Preface vii
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1.1 Introduction to textile fabric 1
1.2 Introduction to knitting 2
1.3 History of knitting 2
1.4 Principle of hand knitting 3
1.5 Glimpses of knitting 4
1.6 Advantages of knitting 6
1.7 Reasons for the growth of knitting 7
1.8 Indian knitting industry 8
1.9 Comparison between weaving and knitting 10
References 11
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2.1 Classification of knitting 12
2.2 Classification of weft knitting machines 13
2.3 Classification of warp knitting machines 14
2.4 Comparison between weft knitting and warp knitting 17
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3.1 Introduction 19
3.2 Types of needles 19
3.3 Latch needle 20
3.4 Bearded needle 21
3.5 Compound or bi-partite needle 22
3.6 Manufacturing and specifications of latch needle 22
3.7 Sinker 24
3.8 Knitting cam system 27
3.9 Knitting action of the latch needle 30
3.10 Knitting action of the bearded needle 31
References 33
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4.1 Machine pitch and gauge 34
4.2 Loop 34
4.3 Face loop and back (reverse) loop 35
4.4 Single-faced structures and double-faced structures 36
4.5 Single jersey and double jersey fabrics 37
4.6 Courses, wales and stitch density 37
4.7 Loop length and course length 38
4.8 Different situations in loop formation 38
4.9 Stitch notation 39
4.10 Held loop 40
4.11 Tucking and tuck loop 40
4.12 Floating and float Loop (or missing and miss loop) 41
4.13 Drop or press-off stitch 42
4.14 Timing of knitting in circular double jersey machine 43
Reference 43
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5.1 Introduction to basic weft-knitted structures 44
5.2 Single jersey and double jersey knitting 44
5.3 Features of plain (single jersey) knitting (machine, process
and structure) 46
5.4 Features of rib knitting (machine, process and structure) 48
5.5 Features of interlock knitting (machine, process and structure) 49
5.6 Features of purl knitting (machine, process and structure) 50
5.7 Comparison between rib and interlock knitting 51
5.8 Comparison between rib and purl Knitting 51
5.9 Comparison of basic weft-knitted structures 51
5.10 Instability of plain loop 52
5.11 Some popular extended basic double jersey structures 55
References 55
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6.1 Relative technology with latch needle 56
6.2 Plating 58
6.3 Laying-in and inlaid structure 60
6.4 Fair isle technique 60
6.5 Fleecy fabric knitting 61
6.6 High pile or sliver knitted fabric production 62
6.7 Plush or terry fabric production 62
6.8 Yarn changer device or striper 64
6.9 Linking 65
6.10 Loop transfer 65
6.11 Welt formation 66
6.12 Shaping during knitting 68
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7.1 Knitting machine 69
7.2 Frame 71
7.3 Drive 71
7.4 Creel 72
7.5 Tensioner 73
7.6 Guides 75
7.7 Feed plate 75
7.8 Methods of yarn feeding 76
7.9 Principles of yarn feeding 77
7.10 Number of feeders and feeder density 79
7.11 Stop motions 80
7.12 Take-down mechanism 81
7.13 Fabric spreader or stretcher board 82
7.14 Open width cloth winding 83
7.15 Sinkerless knitting machine 85
7.16 Speed factor 85
References 85
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8.1 Ornamentation of knitted structures 86
8.2 Horizontal striping 87
8.3 Intersia 87
8.4 Plating 89
8.5 Individual needle selection 89
8.6 Selection of pattern mechanism 97
8.7 Some special knitted designs/structures 97
_ _ _____________ ___
9.1 Introduction 101
9.2 Types of flat bed machines 101
9.3 Range of machine gauge and width 102
9.4 Simple V-bed rib machines 103
9.5 Knitting cam system 106
9.6 Double cam systems 108
9.7 Yarn tensioner and storage feeder 109
9.8 Fabric take-down 110
9.9 Loop transfer 110
9.10 Racked structures 112
9.11 Knitting of circular fabrics 113
9.12 Mechanically controlled jacquard knitting 114
9.13 C.M.S. machines 115
References 116
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10.1 Objectives of studying knitting science 117
10.2 Fields of study 117
10.3 Importance of knitted loop length and loop shape 118
10.4 Loop length 118
10.5 Robbing back 121
10.6 Parameters of a knitted fabric 122
10.7 Constants of a knitted fabric 122
10.8 Some useful relations 125
10.9 Relation between properties and geometry of a loop 126
10.10 Geometry of weft knitted loop 127
10.11 Tightness factor of knitted fabrics 129
10.12 Relaxation of knitted fabrics 131
10.13 Prediction of finished weight and shrinkage of cotton 131
knits – The Starfish Project
References 132
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11.1 Introduction 134
11.2 Measurement of loop length 135
11.3 Control of loop length 135
11.4 Important check points in knitting 136
11.5 Faults in knitted fabrics 137
11.6 Spirality in knitted structures 139
11.7 Relationship between yarn properties and knitted fabric
qualities 141
11.8 Pre-requisites for faultless production in knitting 141
11.9 Main factors affecting the dimensional properties of knitted
fabrics/garments 142
11.10 Online quality control 142
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12.1 Introduction 144
12.2 Types of warp knitting machines 145
12.3 Comparison between Tricot and Raschel type warp knitting
machines 145
12.4 Knitting elements 147
12.5 Warp beams 150
__ ____ ____________________________________ ___
13.1 Needle bar movement 151
13.2 Guide bar movements 151
13.3 Lapping diagram 153
13.4 Tricot machine knitting cycle with bearded needle 155
13.5 Raschel machine knitting cycle with latch needle 156
13.6 Fabric take-down 157
13.7 Warp let-off 158
13.8 Patterning mechanisms 159
13.9 Displacement of various knitting elements during loop 162
formation
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14.1 Introduction 165
14.2 Types of stitches and structures 166
14.3 Laying-in 166
14.4 Co-We-Nit 167
14.5 Full width weft insertion 168
14.6 Milanese fabrics and machines 169
14.7 Multi-axial knitting 171
14.8 A few popular warp knit structures 172
14.9 Warp knitted nets 175
14.10 Common products of warp knitting machines 177
__ ___ __________ __________________ ____ _!"
15.1 Introduction 179
15.2 Double needle bar Tricot machine 180
15.3 Double needle bar Raschel machine 181
15.4 Pile fabrics on double needle bar machine 182
15.5 Tubular and branched fabrics on double needle bar machine 183
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16.1 Structural parameters of warp knitted fabrics 185
16.2 Run-in per rack 186
16.3 Yarn to fabric ratio 186
16.4 Tightness factor of warp knitted fabrics 187
16.5 Loop length and loop model of warp knitted cell 187
16.6 Standardization of chain link and machine gauge 188
16.7 Yarn count and machine gauge 188
16.8 Grey specification of warp knitted fabric 188
16.9 Fabric specifications 189
References 190
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17.1 Introduction 191
17.2 Developments in flat bed weft knitting 192
17.3 Developments in circular bed weft knitting 193
17.4 Developments in warp knitting 194
17.5 Technical textiles – the new product range in knitting 195
17.6 Cut resistant gloves for food processing 195
17.7 Concept of green bags and their knitting 197
References 198
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18.1 Yarn 199
18.2 Types of yarn 199
18.3 Important yarn characteristics/parameters 199
18.4 Yarn count or number 201
18.5 Conversion of count in one system to other system 202
18.6 Count of plied or folded yarns 202
18.7 Yarn count and yarn diameter 202
18.8 Importance of yarn count 203
18.9 Yarn composition 203
18.10 Fibre wise end products 205
18.11 Selection of yarns for knitting 205
18.12 Knitting of textured yarns 206
18.13 Scope of lycra yarn in knitting 207
18.14 Scope of jute yarn in knitting 208
18.15 Quality of cotton yarns used in circular weft knitting 209
18.16 Relationship between machine gauge and yarn count 210
18.17 Yarn package 211
References 212
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19.1 Merits of electronic elements and devices 213
19.2 Fields of applications of electronics in knitting 213
19.3 Computer-aided designing and manufacturing 214
19.4 Computer-aided knitted fabric design 215
19.5 Types of CAD for knitting and other peripherals 217
19.6 Some of the exclusive features of standard software 218
19.7 Computer-aided manufacturing of knitted fabrics (CAM) 219
19.8 Data management system in electronic jacquard 219
19.9 Knitting machine with built-in computer 221
19.10 Design studio 221
References 223
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20.1 Introduction 224
20.2 Yarn tensioner 224
20.3 Yarn tension in knitting 226
20.4 Measurement of yarn tension 228
20.5 Measurement of coefficient of yarn to needle and yarn to 235
yarn friction
References 237
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21.1 Introduction 238
21.2 Geometry of knitting zone 239
21.3 Experimental studies on single jersey knitting 243
21.4 Experimental studies on double jersey knitting 250
21.5 Modeling of loop formation systems 256
References 260
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22.1 Introduction 262
22.2 Warp knitted cell (loop) model 263
22.3 The three-dimensional analysis of the loop’s picture 266
22.4 Warp tension during loop formation 268
22.5 Yarn tension and oscillation in the process of warp knitting 269
22.6 Robbing back 272
22.7 Influence of loop position on warp knitted structure 272
References 273
23.1 Basics of calculations 274
23.2 Examples of knitting related calculations 276
24.1 Introduction 283
24.2 Knitted spacer fabrics 284
24.3 Production of spacer fabric in weft knitting 285
24.4 Production of spacer fabric in warp knitting 287
24.5 Common advantages of 3-dimensionally knited spacer fabrics 290
24.6 Types of testing performed for spacer fabrics 290
24.7 Warp knitted spacer fabric (WKSF) and its characteristics 291
References 292
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25.1 Textiles and garment industry 293
25.2 Fabrics and garments 294
25.3 Fabric characteristics 295
25.4 Sourcing of fabrics for garments 295
25.5 Trimmings 297
25.6 Knitting and knitted fabrics for garments 298
25.7 Shaping during knitting in garment length machine 299
25.8 Garment manufacturing in knitting 302
25.9 Concept of “Shima Seiki Whole Garment” 306
25.10 Circular hosiery knitting 307
25.11 Garmenting in warp knitting 312
25.12 Potential benefits of seamless garment knitting 314
References 315
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26.1 Purpose of analysis 316
26.2 Tools, equipments and materials for analysis 316
26.3 Determination of technical face side and back side 317
26.4 Parameters to be obtained during analysis of knitted fabrics 318
26.5 Testing of knitted fabrics 320
26.6 Traditional testing of knitted fabrics 320
26.7 Low stress mechanical properties of fabrics 321
References 325
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27.1 Introduction to medical textiles 326
27.2 Important functions of medical textiles 327
27.3 Wound care management 327
27.4 Human body parts made of textile materials 327
27.5 Advantages of knitting in the production of medical textiles 327
27.6 Types of machines used 328
27.7 A few knitted medical textiles 328
27.8 Latest trend in medical textiles 329
References 329
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28.1 Concept and importance of green business 330
28.2 Environmental management 331
28.3 Green business in knitting and knitwear industries 332
28.4 Suggestions for maintaining green environment 334
References 335

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