Fundamentals and Practices in Colouration of Textiles | J N Chakraborty

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Fundamentals and Practices in Colouration of Textiles, 2nd Edition
J N Chakraborty
Fundamentals and Practices in Colouration of Textiles

Contents
Preface xix
Acknowledgement xx
Preface to the second edition xxii
1 Introduction to colouration of textiles 1
1.1 Importance of pretreatment 1
1.2 Types of impurities 2
1.3 Types of pretreatment 2
1.4 Structure of fibre 4
1.5 Absorbency, whiteness and pH of textiles 4
1.6 Form of textile 5
1.7 Formulation of dyeing recipe 5
1.8 Liquor ratio in dyeing 6
1.9 Selection of machinery 7
1.10 Dye uptake and dye yield 7
1.11 Sequencing dyeing programmes 8
1.12 Selection of dyeing method 8
1.13 Dye saturation value of fibres 9
1.14 Chemical processing technology 9
1.15 Prediction of recipe for mass dyeing 10
1.16 Preparation of dye solution 10
1.17 Documentation of process details 11
1.18 References 11
2 Colouring materials 12
2.1 Definition and types 12
2.2 Classification 14
2.3 Nomenclature of colouring materials 20
2.4 References 21
3 Dye–Fibre interaction 22
3.1 Introduction 22
3.2 Chemical aspects related to dye–fibre interaction 25
3.3 References 28
4 Dyeing with direct dye 29
4.1 Introduction 29
4.2 Properties of direct dyes 29
4.3 Classification 30
4.4 Specification of some direct dyes 31
4.5 Dyeing of cellulosics 31
4.6 Mechanism of dyeing 38
4.7 Dyeing of jute 38
4.8 Dyeing of protein fibres 39
4.9 After-treatment of dyeings 39
4.10 Stripping of colour 44
4.11 References 44
5 Dyeing with sulphur dye 46
5.1 Introduction 46
5.2 Features of sulphur dyes 47
5.3 Chemistry of sulphur dyes 48
5.4 Classification 51
5.5 Batch application 51
5.6 Continuous dyeing 53
5.7 Reducing systems 54
5.8 Oxidising agents 56
5.9 Bronzing of shade 56
5.10 Fastness of dyeings 57
5.11 Tendering of cellulose 58
5.12 References 58
6 Dyeing with reactive dye 61
6.1 Introduction 61
6.2 Classification 62
6.3 Properties 63
6.4 Specification of some reactive dyes 65
6.5 Reaction between cellulose and water 66
6.6 Application 67
6.7 Factors affecting dye uptake 71
6.8 Washing of dyed goods 73
6.9 Reactive dye on silk 74
6.10 Reactive dye on wool 75
6.11 Stripping 75
6.12 Fastness properties 75
6.13 References 76
7 Dyeing with reactive H-E dye 77
7.1 Superiority over conventional reactive dyes 77
7.2 Features of H-E dyes 78
7.3 Individual dye characteristics 78
7.4 Structure of H-E dyes 80
7.5 Dyeing of cotton 82
7.6 Correction of shade 85
7.7 Washing-off and after-treatments 86
7.8 Stripping 86
7.9 Disperse-reactive H-E combination for polyester‑cotton blends 86
7.10 References 87
8 Dyeing with vat dye 88
8.1 Basic principle for application 88
8.2 Physical form of dye 89
8.3 Properties of vat dyes 89
8.4 Classification 90
8.5 Structure of some important vat dyes 91
8.6 Application on cellulose 94
8.7 Reduction of vat dyes 95
8.8 Solubilisation 100
8.9 Dyeing 101
8.10 Oxidation 102
8.11 Soaping 103
8.12 Photochemical degradation 103
8.13 Methods for practical application 104
8.14 Defects in dyeings 105
8.15 Stripping and correction of faulty dyeings 106
8.16 References 106
9 Dyeing with indigo 109
9.1 Introduction 109
9.2 Dyeing methods 110
9.3 Application of indigo 113
9.4 Factors affecting indigo uptake 114
9.5 Alternate techniques to enhance indigo uptake 118
9.6 Cost-effective steps in indigo dyeing 119
9.7 Quantitative estimation of indigo 120
9.8 References 122
10 Dyeing with solubilised vat dye 125
10.1 Introduction 125
10.2 Properties 126
10.3 Specification of some solubilised vat dyes 127
10.4 Application 128
10.5 Affinity of dyes 130
10.6 Continuous dyeing 130
10.7 Oxidation 131
10.8 References 132
11 Dyeing with insoluble azoic colours 133
11.1 Basic principle of application 133
11.2 Colour Index specification of coupling component and base 134
11.3 Classification of coupling component 134
11.4 Properties of coupling components 135
11.5 Specification of some important coupling components 136
11.6 Practical application 136
11.7 Specification of some important bases 145
11.8 Function of chemicals 146
11.9 Precautions to be taken 149
11.10 Rubbing fastness 151
11.11 Limitations 151
11.12 Stripping 152
11.13 References 152
12 Dyeing with mineral colours 153
12.1 Introduction 153
12.2 Fundamentals of application 154
12.3 Practical application 155
12.4 Other mineral colours 156
12.5 Stripping of mineral colours 159
12.6 References 159
13 Dyeing with oxidation black 160
13.1 Introduction 160
13.2 Mechanism of formation of lake 161
13.3 Application 161
13.4 Problems in dyeing with aniline black 165
13.5 Dyeing with diphenyl black 165
13.6 Continuous dyeing with aniline black 166
13.7 References 168
14 Dyeing with phthalocyanine dye 169
14.1 Formation of Phthalogen blue 169
14.2 Chemistry of phthalocyanine dyes 170
14.3 Properties 170
14.4 Application 172
14.5 Phthalocyanine green 174
14.6 Precautions to be taken 175
14.7 Stripping of phthalocyanine dyes 175
14.8 References 175
15 Dyeing with acid dye 177
15.1 Introduction 177
15.2 Classification 177
15.3 Mechanism of dyeing 179
15.4 Selection of dye 181
15.5 Influence of dyeing parameters 181
15.6 Specification of some acid dyes 184
15.7 References 185
16 Dyeing with metal-complex dye 187
16.1 Introduction 187
16.2 Chemistry and application 187
16.3 Other applications of metal-complex dyes 198
16.4 References 198
17 Dyeing with basic dye 200
17.1 Principle of application 200
17.2 Properties 201
17.3 Classification 202
17.4 Specification of some important basic dyes 202
17.5 Dyeing of cellulose 202
17.6 Topping on direct dyeings 206
17.7 Dyeing of wool, silk and nylon 207
17.8 Fastness properties 207
17.9 Cationic dyes for PAN fibres 208
17.10 References 208
18 Dyeing with disperse dye 209
18.1 Characteristic property of dyes 209
18.2 Classification of disperse dyes 210
18.3 Specification of few important disperse dyes 211
18.4 Technology of dyeing 212
18.5 Temperature of dyeing 212
18.6 Mechanism of dyeing 213
18.7 Dispersing agent 214
18.8 Levelling agent 216
18.9 Carriers 216
18.10 Methods of application 217
18.11 Gas fading of disperse dyes 218
18.12 References 219
19 Colouration with pigments 220
19.1 Fundamentals of application 220
19.2 Properties of pigments 221
19.3 Advantages of colouration with pigments 222
19.4 Related problems 222
19.5 Chemical specification of pigments 223
19.6 Pigment 225
19.7 Binder 225
19.8 Catalyst 227
19.9 Thickening system 227
19.10 Application 228
19.11 Garment dyeing with pigments 229
19.12 Substitute for kerosene 230
19.13 References 230
20 Dyeing with natural dyes 233
20.1 Introduction 233
20.2 Classification of natural dyes 234
20.3 Processing of natural dyes 242
20.4 Dyeing with natural dyes 250
20.5 Fastness of natural dyed textiles 252
20.6 Non-textile use of natural dyes 254
20.7 Performance of natural dyes 255
20.8 Reference 256
21 Dyeing of silk 262
21.1 Introduction 262
21.2 Dyes for silk 263
21.3 Dyeing of silk 263
21.4 Rapid dyeing of silk 267
21.5 Recent developments 268
21.6 References 268
22 Dyeing of polyester 271
22.1 Fundamentals of dyeing 271
22.2 Methods of dyeing polyester 272
22.3 Alkaline dyeing of polyester 278
22.4 Dyeing of textured polyester 278
22.5 Dyeing of carrier free and cationic dyeable polyester 280
22.6 Fastness of dyeings 282
22.7 References 282
23 Dyeing of nylon 286
23.1 Introduction 286
23.2 Dyes for nylon 287
23.3 Dyeing of nylon 287
23.4 Barré 293
23.5 Dyeing of differentially dyeable nylon 296
23.6 References 297
24 Dyeing of acrylic 301
24.1 Problem in dyeing pure acrylic fibre 301
24.2 Modification of pure acrylic 302
24.3 Dyeing with basic dye 304
24.4 Retarder and its types 307
24.5 Mechanism of retarder action 307
24.6 Matching of shades 308
24.7 Dyeing with disperse dye 308
24.8 Modern approaches for dyeing of PAN 309
24.9 Various types of basic dyes for acrylic fibre 309
24.10 Stripping of basic dyes 311
24.11 Some special cationic dye types for PAN 311
24.12 Differentially dyeable PAN 311
24.13 References 312
25 Influence of fibre and dye structures in dyeing 314
25.1 Basic concept of dyeing 314
25.2 Fibre structure 315
25.3 Dye structure 322
25.4 Dyeing parameters 324
25.5 References 324
26 Processing of micro-fibre 326
26.1 Definition and importance of micro-fibre 326
26.2 Nomenclature of micro-fibre yarns and fabrics 327
26.3 Application of micro-fibres 328
26.4 Typical micro-fibre characteristics 329
26.5 Processing of polyester micro-fibre 330
26.6 Assessment of dyestuff requirement 333
26.7 Processing of nylon micro-fibre 333
26.8 Fastness of dyed micro-fibres 335
26.9 References 335
27 Dyeing of blend 337
27.1 Reasons for blending 337
27.2 Classification of fibres 338
27.3 Nomenclature of blends 339
27.4 Types of shades 340
27.5 Methods of dyeing blends 342
27.6 Dyeing of primary blends 344
27.7 Dyeing of binary blends 349
27.8 Dyeing of ternary blends 354
27.9 References 355
28 Dyeing in supercritical carbon dioxide 356
28.1 Shortcomings of aqueous dyeing system 356
28.2 Supercritical fluid 356
28.3 Benefits of dyeing with supercritical CO2 358
28.4 Dyeing in supercritical CO2 359
28.5 Mechanism of dyeing 361
28.6 Change in fibre structure 362
28.7 Non-textile applications and future prospects 362
28.8 References 363
29 Garment dyeing 365
29.1 Prospect of garment dyeing 365
29.2 Structure of garment dyeing sector 367
29.3 Classification of garments 368
29.4 Colouration of garment 371
29.5 Selection of colourants for cotton garment 378
29.6 Dyeing of woollen garment 380
29.7 Dyeing of polyester garment 380
29.8 Quality control 380
29.9 Miscellaneous novel effects in garment dyeing 385
29.10 Recent challenges in garment dyeing sectors 385
29.11 Problems of garment dyeing 386
29.12 Precautions in garment dyeing 387
29.13 References 387
30 Differential coloured effect in dyeing 391
30.1 Introduction 391
30.2 Methodology to produce multi-coloured effects 392
30.3 Miscellaneous techniques to produce multi-coloured effects 403
30.4 References 414
31 Enzymatic dyeing of textiles 418
31.1 Introduction 418
31.2 Enzymes 419
31.3 Dyeing with enzymes 420
31.4 Conclusion 429
31.5 References 430
32 Synthesis of dye intermediates 433
32.1 Introduction 433
32.2 Manufacture and application of dye intermediates 434
32.3 References 451
33 Assessment of fastness of dyeings 452
33.1 Basic considerations 452
33.2 Standards of fastness grades 455
33.3 Light fastness 456
33.4 Wash fastness 461
33.5 Perspiration fastness 462
33.6 Fastness to chlorinated water 463
33.7 Rubbing fastness 464
33.8 Sublimation fastness 464
33.9 Fastness to dry cleaning 464
33.10 References 465
34 Identification of dye class on cellulosics 467
34.1 Reasons to identify dye 467
34.2 Identification of dyes 469
34.3 References 478
35 Dyeing machineries 479
35.1 Working liquor ratio in machines 479
35.2 Loose fibre dyeing machine 480
35.3 Yarn dyeing machines 482
35.4 Fabric dyeing machines 488
35.5 High temperature high pressure dyeing machines 497
35.6 Continuous dyeing of textiles 507
35.7 References 510
36 Wastewater problem in textile industry 514
36.1 Introduction 514
36.2 Implication of chemical processes on wastewater load 515
36.3 Classification of pollutants in textiles 517
36.4 Quality of water for textile processing 517
36.5 Alternate technologies to reduce load 520
36.6 Problem related to unused colour 525
36.7 Wastewater problem in various exhaust dyeing processes 528
36.8 Cleaning of dyeings with surfactants 533
36.9 Basics of assessing wastewater load 535
36.10 Methods for evaluation of wastewater load 538
36.11 References 542
Index 546

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