Handbook on Cotton Spinning Industry | B. Purushothama

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Handbook on Cotton Spinning Industry
B. Purushothama
Handbook on Cotton Spinning Industry

Contents
Preface xxv
Foreword xxvii
1 Supervisor: Textile industry 1
1.1 Purpose of supervision 1
1.2 What is expected from a supervisor? 2
1.3 What supervisor should do? 2
1.4 What supervisor should not do? 3
1.5 Routine and special activities 3
1.6 Routine activities of production supervisor 4
1.7 Knowledge required for production supervisor 5
1.8 Routine activities of maintenance supervisor 5
1.9 Knowledge required for maintenance supervisor 7
1.10 Control points and check points 8
1.11 Normal problems in supervision 9
1.12 Dos and don’ts for supervisor 10
1.12.1 Dos 10
1.12.2 Don’ts 10
1.13 Responsibilities of a supervisor 11
1.14 Authorities of a supervisor 12
1.15 Minimum competency requirements for supervisor 12
1.15.1 Knowledge and education needed for supervisor 12
1.15.2 Maturity/experience needed for a supervisor 13
1.15.3 Skills required for a supervisor 13
1.15.4 Trainings required for supervisor 13
1.15.5 Physical competency required for supervisor 14
1.16 Behaviour expected from a supervisor 14
2 Jobber 15
2.1 Who is a jobber? 15
2.2 Purpose of a jobber 15
2.3 What is expected from a jobber? 16
2.4 What jobber should do? 16
2.5 What jobber should not do? 17
2.6 Routine activities of a jobber 17
2.7 Knowledge required for jobber 18
2.8 Control points and check points 19
2.9 Normal problems faced by jobbers 20
2.10 Dos and don’ts for jobber 21
2.10.1 Dos 21
2.10.2 Don’ts 22
2.11 Responsibilities of a jobber 22
2.12 Authorities of a jobber 23
2.13 Minimum competency requirements for jobber 23
2.13.1 Knowledge and education needed for jobber 23
2.13.2 Maturity/experience needed for a jobber 24
2.13.3 Skills required for a jobber 24
2.13.4 Trainings required for jobber 24
2.13.5 Physical competency required for jobber 25
2.14 Behaviours expected from a jobber 25
3 Mixing 27
3.1 Purpose of mixing 27
3.2 What is expected from a good mixing? 27
3.3 What mixing should do? 27
3.4 What mixing should not do? 28
3.5 Routine activities in cotton mixing area 28
3.6 Knowledge required for making mixing 29
3.7 Control points and check points 29
3.7.1 Control points in cotton mixing 29
3.7.2 Check points in cotton mixing 30
3.8 Normal problems in mixing 32
3.8.1 Wrong issue of cotton bale for mixing 32
3.8.2 Quick running out of a bale whereas other bales are still big 32
3.8.3 Non availability of workers for mixing 32
3.8.4 Uncontrolled addition of soft wastes 32
3.8.5 Unopened sliver wastes dumped in the mixing yard 33
3.8.6 Improper additions of cotton spray oil 33
3.8.7 Improper conditioning of mixing stack 33
3.8.8 Not cleaning of sides of bales before mixing 33
3.8.9 Wet and matted bales received 33
3.8.10 Too much contamination in cotton bales 34
3.9 Dos and Don’ts for mixing 34
3.9.1 Dos 34
3.9.2 Don’ts 35
3.10 Responsibilities of supervisor in mixing 35
3.11 Authorities of supervisor in mixing 35
4 Blow room 37
4.1 Purpose of blow room 37
4.2 What blow room should do? 37
4.3 What blow room should not do? 38
4.4 General activities of a blow room 38
4.5 Knowledge required for working blow room 38
4.6 Control points and check points 39
4.6.1 Control points in blow room 39
4.6.2 Check points in blow room 39
4.7 Normal problems in blow room 41
4.7.1 Low cleaning effi ciency 41
4.7.2 High generation of neps and fi bre rupture 42
4.7.3 High variability in the delivered hank 43
4.7.4 Formation of cat’s tail 43
4.7.5 Conical lap 44
4.7.6 Lap licking 44
4.7.7 Patchy lap 44
4.7.8 Holes in lap 45
4.7.9 Soft laps or bulged laps 45
4.7.10 Ragged lap selvedge 45
4.7.11 Heavy or light laps 45
4.7.12 Double lap observed in carding 46
4.7.13 Rich droppings 46
4.7.14 Ineffective suction in ducts 46
4.8 Dos and don’ts 46
4.8.1 Dos 46
4.8.2 Don’ts 47
4.9 Responsibilities of supervisor in blow room 47
4.10 Authorities of supervisor in blow room 48
4.11 Applicable formulae 48
5 Carding 49
5.1 Purpose of carding 49
5.2 What carding should do? 49
5.3 What carding should not do? 50
5.4 General activities of carding 51
5.5 Knowledge required for running carding 51
5.6 Control points and check points 51
5.6.1 Control points in carding 51
5.6.2 Check points in carding 52
5.7 Normal problems in carding 54
5.7.1 Patchy web 54
5.7.2 Singles 54
5.7.3 Sagging web 54
5.7.4 High card water 54
5.7.5 Low nep-removal effi ciency 55
5.7.6 Higher U% of sliver 55
5.7.7 Bulky sliver 55
5.7.8 Higher breaks 56
5.7.9 Snow balls 56
5.7.10 Hole in web 56
5.7.11 Ragged selvedges 56
5.7.12 Fluff generation at cylinder sides 56
5.7.13 Undercasing side fl y at cylinder 57
5.7.14 Feed roller lapping 57
5.7.15 Fibre ruptures 57
5.7.16 Poor cleaning effi ciency 57
5.8 Dos and don’ts 57
5.8.1 Dos 57
5.8.2 Don’ts 58
5.9 Responsibilities of supervisor in carding 58
5.10 Authorities of supervisor in carding 59
5.11 Some hints for getting better performance 60
5.12 Some formulae 60
6 Combing 61
6.1 Purpose of combing 61
6.2 What combing should do? 61
6.3 What combing should not do? 61
6.4 General activities of combing 62
6.5 Knowledge required for running combing 63
6.6 Control points and check points 63
6.6.1 Control points in combing 63
6.6.2 Check points in combing 64
6.7 Normal problems in combing 66
6.7.1 Problems due to lap preparation 66
6.7.2 Normal problems in combing 66
6.8 Dos and don’ts 69
6.8.1 Dos 70
6.8.2 Don’ts 71
6.9 Responsibilities of supervisor in combing 71
6.10 Authorities of supervisor in combing 72
6.11 Some hints for better performance 73
6.12 Applicable formulae 73
7 Draw frames 75
7.1 Purpose of draw frames 75
7.2 What draw frames should do? 75
7.3 What drawing should not do? 76
7.4 General activities of drawing 76
7.5 Knowledge required for running draw frames 78
7.6 Control points and check points 78
7.6.1 Control points in draw frames 78
7.6.2 Check points in draw frames 79
7.7 Normal problems in draw frames 81
7.7.1 Improper sliver hank 81
7.7.2 Uneven sliver 81
7.7.3 Singles 81
7.7.4 Cuts in sliver 82
7.7.5 Good fi bres in suction waste 82
7.7.6 Improper coiling 82
7.7.7 Higher breakages 82
7.8 Dos and don’ts 83
7.8.1 Dos 83
7.8.2 Don’ts 84
7.9 Responsibilities of supervisor in draw frames 84
7.10 Authorities of supervisor in draw frames 85
7.11 Some hints for better performance 86
7.12 Applicable formulae 86
8 Speed frames 87
8.1 Purpose of speed frames 87
8.2 What speed frames should do? 87
8.3 What speed frames should not do? 88
8.4 General activities of speed frames 88
8.5 Knowledge required for running speed frames 88
8.6 Control points and check points 89
8.6.1 Control points in speed frames 89
8.6.2 Check points in speed frames 89
8.7 Normal problems in speed frames 92
8.7.1 Higher U% of rove 92
8.7.2 Higher breakages 92
8.7.3 Soft bobbins 93
8.7.4 Lashing in 93
8.7.5 Hard bobbins 93
8.7.6 Oozed out bobbins 93
8.7.7 Load variations between top arms 94
8.8 Dos and don’ts 94
8.8.1 Dos 94
8.8.2 Don’ts 95
8.9 Responsibilities of supervisor in speed frame 96
8.10 Authorities of supervisor in speed frame 96
8.11 Some hints for better performance 97
8.12 Applicable formulae 97
9 Ring spinning 99
9.1 Purpose of ring frame 99
9.2 What ring frames should do? 99
9.3 What ring frames should not do? 99
9.4 General activities of ring frame 100
9.5 Knowledge required for running ring frames 101
9.6 Control points and check points 101
9.6.1 Control points in ring frames 102
9.6.2 Check points in ring frames 102
9.7 Normal problems in ring frames 104
9.7.1 Ring cut cops 104
9.7.2 Hard twisted yarn 105
9.7.3 Uneven yarn 105
9.7.4 Soft twisted yarn 105
9.7.5 Higher hairiness 105
9.7.6 Lean built cop 106
9.7.7 Sloughing off at winding 106
9.7.8 Undrafted end 106
9.7.9 Higher thin places 106
9.7.10 De-shaped cops 106
9.7.11 Idle spindles 106
9.7.12 Slub 107
9.7.13 Crackers 107
9.7.14 Shade variations 107
9.7.15 Higher end breaks 107
9.7.16 High yarn faults 108
9.7.17 High count variation 109
9.7.18 Twist variations 109
9.7.19 Top apron damage 109
9.7.20 Bottom apron damage 109
9.7.21 Spindle tape breakage 109
9.8 Dos and don’ts 110
9.8.1 Dos 110
9.8.2 Don’ts 111
9.9 Responsibilities of supervisor in ring frames 112
9.10 Authorities of supervisor in ring frames 113
9.11 Some hints for better performance 113
9.12 Applicable formulae 114
10 Rotor spinning 115
10.1 Purpose of rotor spinning 115
10.2 What rotor spinning should do? 115
10.3 What rotor spinning should not do? 116
10.4 General activities in rotor spinning 116
10.5 Knowledge required for running rotor spinning 116
10.6 Control points and check points 117
10.6.1 Control points in rotor spinning 117
10.6.2 Check points in rotor spinning 117
10.7 Normal problems in rotor spinning 119
10.7.1 Neppy/uneven yarn 119
10.7.2 Stitches 119
10.7.3 Irregular yarn 119
10.7.4 High snarling tendency 120
10.7.5 Higher hairiness 120
10.7.6 High trash content in yarn 120
10.8 Dos and don’ts for supervisor 120
10.8.1 Dos 120
10.8.2 Don’ts 121
10.9 Responsibilities of supervisor in rotor spinning 121
10.10 Authorities of rotor spinning supervisor 122
10.11 Some tips for better performance 122
10.12 Applicable formulae 123
11 Cone winding 125
11.1 Purpose of cone winding 125
11.2 What cone winding should do? 125
11.3 What cone winding should not do? 126
11.4 General activities in cone winding 126
11.5 Knowledge required for cone winding 126
11.6 Control points and check points 127
11.6.1 Control points in cone winding 127
11.6.2 Check points at cone winding 128
11.7 Normal problems in winding 131
11.7.1 Improper splicing 131
11.7.2 Electronic yarn clearer (EYC) failures 131
11.7.3 Double end 131
11.7.4 Stitches 131
11.7.5 Soft/bulged cones 131
11.7.6 Sunken nose/base 132
11.7.7 Weight variation between cones 132
11.7.8 Shade variation within cones 132
11.7.9 Wrong cone tip or cone label 132
11.7.10 Lapping on winding drum 132
11.7.11 Increase of imperfections during winding 132
11.7.12 Excessive yarn breakage 133
11.7.13 Frequent pick failure on bobbin side 133
11.7.14 Pick failure on package side 133
11.7.15 Missed splicing 133
11.7.16 Low splice strength 134
11.7.17 Yarn not accepted by splicing nozzle 134
11.7.18 Splice thick at one side 134
11.7.19 End missing for splicing 134
11.7.20 Ribbon winding 134
11.7.21 Wrinkles 134
11.7.22 Scramble 135
11.7.23 Stepped winding 135
11.7.24 Saddle back package 135
11.7.25 Swelled package 135
11.8 Dos and don’ts for cone winding 135
11.8.1 Dos 135
11.8.2 Don’ts 136
11.9 Responsibilities of supervisor in winding 137
11.10 Authorities of supervisor in winding 138
11.11 Some hints for better performance 138
11.12 Applicable formulae 139
12 Assembly winding for yarn doubling 141
12.1 Purpose of assembly winding 141
12.2 What assembly winding should do? 141
12.3 What assembly winding should not do? 141
12.4 Routine activities of assembly winding 142
12.5 Knowledge required for working assembly winding 142
12.6 Control points and check points 143
12.6.1 Control points in assembly winding 143
12.6.2 Check points in assembly winding 143
12.7 Normal problems in assembly winding 146
12.7.1 Stitches on ply cheeses 146
12.7.2 Singles 146
12.7.3 Split ends and loose ends in cheeses 147
12.7.4 Loose component ends 147
12.7.5 Mix up of counts leading to corkscrew 147
12.8 Dos and don’ts for supervisor 147
12.8.1 Dos 147
12.8.2 Don’ts 148
12.9 Responsibilities of supervisor in assembly winding 149
12.10 Authorities of assembly winding supervisor 149
12.11 Some tips for better performance 150
12.12 Applicable formulae 150
13 Two for one twisting 151
13.1 Purpose of yarn doubling using two-for-one twisting 151
13.2 What TFO twisting should do? 152
13.3 What TFO twisting should not do? 152
13.4 General activities of a TFO section 152
13.5 Knowledge required for running TFO machine 152
13.6 Control points and check points 153
13.6.1 Control points for two-for-one twisting 153
13.6.2 Check points for two-for-one twisting 153
13.7 Normal problems and nonconformities 156
13.7.1 Corkscrew 156
13.7.2 Snarl 156
13.7.3 Filamentation/drop in strength 156
13.7.4 Uneven package length in a TFO package 156
13.7.5 Zero twisted yarns 156
13.7.6 Multiple-fold yarn 156
13.7.7 Big or improper knot 157
13.7.8 Over twisted yarn lengths 157
13.7.9 Slack twist 157
13.7.10 Loss of tensile strength in yarn 157
13.7.11 Defective package formation 157
13.7.12 Variation in package density 157
13.7.13 Excessive ends down 158
13.8 Dos and don’ts for two-for-one twisting 158
13.8.1 Dos 158
13.8.2 Don’ts 159
13.9 Some hints for better performance 159
13.10 Applicable formulae 159
14 Yarn doubling – ring doubling 161
14.1 Purpose of yarn doubling 161
14.2 What ring doubling should do? 161
14.3 What ring doubling should not do? 162
14.4 General activities in ring doubling 162
14.5 Knowledge required for running ring doubling 162
14.6 Control points and check points 163
14.6.1 Control points in ring doubling 163
14.6.2 Check points in ring doubling 163
14.7 Normal problems in ring doublers 165
14.7.1 Corkscrew 165
14.7.2 Snarls 166
14.7.3 Filamentation and drop in strength 166
14.7.4 Multiple-fold yarn 166
14.7.5 Big or improper knot 166
14.7.6 Uneven twisting within cop 166
14.7.7 Twist variation between cops 166
14.7.8 Increased hairiness and reduced elongation 167
14.8 Dos and don’ts for ring doubling 167
14.8.1 Dos 167
14.8.2 Don’ts 167
14.9 Responsibilities of supervisor in ring doubling 168
14.10 Authorities of supervisor in ring doubling 169
14.11 Some hints for better performance 169
14.12 Applicable formulae 169
15 Reeling 171
15.1 Purpose of yarn reeling 171
15.2 What reeling should do? 171
15.3 What reeling should not do? 171
15.4 General activities in a reeling section 172
15.5 Knowledge required for reeling 172
15.6 Control points and check points 173
15.6.1 Control points – reeling 173
15.6.2 Check points – reeling 173
15.7 Normal problems in reeling 175
15.7.1 Uneven girth 175
15.7.2 Curly hanks 175
15.7.3 Entangled hanks 175
15.8 Dos and don’ts for reeling 175
15.8.1 Dos 176
15.8.2 Don’ts 176
15.9 Responsibilities of supervisor in reeling 176
15.10 Authorities of supervisor in reeling 177
15.11 Some hints for better performance 177
15.12 Applicable formulae 177
16 Cone packing 179
16.1 Purpose 179
16.2 What cone packing should do? 179
16.3 What cone packing should not do? 180
16.4 Different methods of packing cones 180
16.4.1 Bag packing 180
16.4.2 Bale packing 181
16.4.3 Carton packing 181
16.4.4 Pallet packing 183
16.4.5 Wooden case packing 185
16.5 Critical requirements of cone packing 185
16.6 Control points and check point 186
16.6.1 Control points 186
16.6.2 Check points 186
16.7 Normal problems in packing 187
16.8 Dos and don’ts 187
16.8.1 Dos 188
16.8.2 Don’ts 188
17 Bale packing of yarn 189
17.1 Purpose of bale packing 189
17.2 What bale packing should do? 189
17.3 What bale packing should not do? 190
17.4 Stages in bale packing 190
17.5 Control points and check points 190
17.5.1 Control points 191
17.6 Normal problems in bale packing 192
17.6.1 Not able to pack the bundles as the specifi ed weight is not obtained 192
17.6.2 Not receiving the packing materials in time 193
17.6.3 Knots not dressed properly 193
17.6.4 Surplus stock of knots after completing the order 193
17.6.5 Shade variation between knots 193
17.6.6 Curly hanks 194
17.7 Responsibilities of a supervisor in bundling and baling 194
17.8 Authorities of supervisor in bundling and baling 195
18 Humidifi cation management 197
18.1 Introduction 197
18.2 Air washer plant 200
18.3 Air cooling plant 200
18.4 Air handling 200
18.4.1 Supply air 202
18.4.2 Return air 202
18.4.3 Filters 205
18.4.4 Fans 205
18.4.5 Spray nozzle sets 206
18.4.6 Atomizer for humidifi cation plants 207
18.4.7 Filtering water 207
18.4.8 Eliminators 208
18.4.9 Supply air distribution 208
18.4.10 Temperature and humidity monitoring 209
18.5 Localized humidifi cation control 210
18.5.1 Need for localized humidifi cation control 210
18.5.2 Spot coolers 210
18.5.3 Heating lamps 210
18.5.4 Subsystem humidifi cation 211
18.5.5 Exhausting air 213
18.5.6 Machine air-conditioning 214
18.5.7 Yarn conditioning plants 214
18.5.8 Static elimination 215
18.6 Problems encountered in air washer operations 216
18.6.1 Microbiological growth 216
18.6.2 Oil 216
18.6.3 Foam 217
18.6.4 Carryover of solids 217
18.6.5 Corrosion 217
18.6.7 Encrustation 218
18.6.8 Odours 218
18.6.9 Biological control 218
19 Safety management 219
19.1 Why safety management? 219
19.2 Normal causes of accidents in a spinning mill 219
19.3 Environment, hygiene and OSHAS norms 220
19.3.1 Exposure to cotton dust 220
19.3.2 Exposure to chemicals 221
19.3.3 Exposure to noise 221
19.3.4 Ergonomic issues 222
19.4 Safety regulations 223
19.5 Safety measures 223
19.5.1 Beater guards 224
19.5.2 Gear housing covers 224
19.5.3 Casing 224
19.5.4 Work on or near machinery in motion 224
19.5.5 Means of stopping machines 224
19.5.6 Protection for the machine repairers 224
19.5.7 Pushbutton control 225
19.5.8 Cleanout holes 225
19.5.9 Nip guards 226
19.5.10 Feed rolls 226
19.5.11 Enclosures 226
19.5.12 Pressure plant 227
19.5.13 Hoists and lifts 227
19.5.14 Lifting machines, chains, ropes and lifting tackles 227
19.5.15 Floors, stairs, and means of access 228
19.5.16 Excessive weights 228
19.5.17 Securing ladders 228
19.5.18 Protection of eyes 228
19.5.19 Rotary fi lters 229
19.5.20 Reducing valves, safety valves, and pressure gages 229
19.5.21 Housekeeping 229
19.5.22 Lighting and illumination 229
19.5.23 Oil cups 229
19.5.24 Air changes 229
19.6 Preventing and handling fi re accidents 230
19.6.1 Fires due to mechanical friction 230
19.6.2 Fires due to electrical short circuits 232
19.6.3 Fires due to negligence of workers and staff 232
19.6.4 Precautions in case of fi re 233
19.6.5 Training for fi rst aid 234
20 Wastes in spinning 235
20.1 Defi nition and characterization 235
20.1.1 Anything for which customer does not pay is a waste 236
20.2 Process wastes and product wastes 237
20.3 Avoidable and unavoidable wastes 237
20.4 Non-value adding activities 238
20.5 Soft wastes in spinning 238
20.6 Controlling generation of process wastes 244
20.7 Hard wastes in spinning 245
20.8 Invisible wastes 246
20.8.1 Visible wastes 247
20.8.2 Invisible wastes 247
20.9 Yarn realization 248
20.10 Some novel ways of getting high returns from wastes 250
21 Maintenance practices 255
21.1 Purpose of maintenance 255
21.2 Types of maintenance 255
21.2.1 Planned maintenance 255
21.2.2 Unplanned maintenance 258
21.2.3 Improvement 258
21.3 Total productive maintenance 259
21.3.1 Rate effi ciency (RE) 262
21.3.2 Speed effi ciency (SE) 262
21.4 Spare part management 263
21.4.1 Fast moving items 263
21.4.2 Insurance items or vital items 264
21.4.3 Standard consumables 264
21.4.4 Planned replacement items 264
21.4.5 Overhauling items 264
21.5 Maintenance budget 264
21.6 Utilization budget 265
21.7 Expenditure budget 265
21.8 Budgetary control 266
22 Manpower planning and management 267
22.1 Introduction 267
22.2 Factors affecting manpower planning 268
22.3 Regular and substitute workers 268
22.4 Leave management 269
22.5 Maintaining skill matrix and competency records 270
22.6 Managing harmony 270
23 Marketing yarns 273
23.1 Yarn marketing 273
23.2 Grey yarn marketing 273
23.3 Wholesale and retail marketing 276
23.4 Studying markets and booking orders for yarns 277
23.5 Understanding customer satisfaction 278
24 Quality management practices 283
24.1 What is quality management? 283
24.2 Procuring materials 284
24.3 Preparing process parameters, procedures and work instructions for process management 285
24.4 Testing the produced materials 285
24.5 Process control studies 286
24.6 Quality improvement 287
References 289
Index 293

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