Modern Approach to Maintenance in Spinning | Neeraj Niijjaawan and Rasshmi Niijjaawan

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Modern Approach to Maintenance in Spinning
By Neeraj Niijjaawan and Rasshmi Niijjaawan
Modern Approach to Maintenance in Spinning

Content
Preface xiii 1 Need of maintenance 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Modes of failure 1
1.3 Role of maintenance 8
2 Role of maintenance 10
2.1 Introduction 10
2.2 Maintenance 11
2.3 Planned maintenance 12
2.4 Unplanned maintenance 17
2.5 Quality-based maintenance 18
2.6 Role of maintenance department in spinning mill 19
3 Proactive maintenance 21
3.1 Introduction 21
3.2 Preventive maintenance 22
3.3 Condition-based monitoring 24
3.4 Benefits of condition-based monitoring 34
3.5 Implementation of condition-based maintenance 34
4 Planning and scheduling 37
4.1 Introduction 37
4.2 General principles of planning 37
4.3 Procedure of planning 38
4.4 Scheduling 40
4.5 Principle of standardization of frequencies and jobs 40
4.6 Principle of cyclic schedule for the maintenance team 41
4.7 Principle of interlinking spare part planning with maintenance plan and schedule 41
4.8 Operators must act as machine keepers 42
4.9 Maintenance schedule 44
5 Maintenance audit 50
5.1 Introduction 50
5.2 Methodology 50
5.3 Preparation of maintenance audit report 53
5.4 Presenting the report to management 54
6 Role of manpower in maintenance 55
6.1 Introduction 55
6.2 Factors affecting manpower planning 55
6.3 Manpower norms 57
6.4 Maintenance organization structure 58
6.5 Concept of common gang 59
6.6 Responsibilities at various positions 62
6.7 Human error in maintenance 66
6.8 Crew size required for various activities in maintenance department 68
7 Maintenance repair inventory and its control 71
7.1 Inventory 71
7.2 Types of inventory 71
7.3 Inventory carrying cost 72
7.4 Material and repair inventory 73
7.5 Different methods for controlling the inventory 73
7.6 How to implement the spare parts management? 83
8 Maintenance information systems 89
8.1 Computer-managed maintenance system 89
8.2 Benefits of CMMS 90
8.3 Components of CMMS 91
9 Safety while maintenance 133
9.1 Accident 133
9.2 Effects of an accident 134
9.3 Accidents and its related losses 134
9.4 Cause of accidents 135
9.5 How to prevent accidents? 136
9.6 Electrical safety 144
9.7 House keeping 144
9.8 Workshop/workplace 147
9.9 Machine guarding 147
9.10 Methods and procedure 148
9.11 Safety in shifting material 151
9.12 Safety while unpacking and cleaning 152
9.13 Precautions for handling machine under maintenance 153
9.14 Precautions during spinning operation 154
9.15 Safety tags 155
10 Lubricants 157
10.1 Types of lubricants 157
10.2 Functions of lubricant 160
10.3 Liquid lubricants 160
10.4 Semisolid lubricants 166
10.5 Solid lubricants 172
10.6 Lubricant used in spinning mill 173
10.7 Lubricants handling and storage 175
10.8 Conservation of lubricants 177
10.9 Summary 178
11 Belt drive and its maintenance 183
11.1 Introduction 183
11.2 Flat belt drives 184
11.3 Spindle tape 192
11.4 Flat pulley 197
11.5 V belts 199
11.6 V pulleys 211
11.7 Timing belts 213
12 Steel wire and chain 223
12.1 Steel wire rope 223
12.2 Construction 223
12.3 Design of wire 224
12.4 Classification of steel wire ropes 225
12.5 Measuring wire rope 225
12.6 Wire pulley or sheave 226
12.7 Lubrication 226
12.8 Reason for failure of wire 227
12.9 Chains 228
12.10 Construction of chain 229
12.11 Designation of chain 229
12.12 Chain lubrication 230
12.13 Chain installation 231
12.14 Maintenance of chains 232
12.15 British standard roller chain 233
12.16 American standard roller chain 235
12.17 Leaf chain 237
12.18 Silent chain 238
13 Temporary fasteners 242
13.1 Introduction 242
13.2 Screwed joint 242
13.3 Different types of bolt/screw 247
13.4 Washer 251
13.5 Nut 252
13.6 Locking device 252
13.7 Key 254
13.8 Tension element 255
13.9 Pins 256
13.10 Retaining rings 256
13.11 Taper lock 257
13.12 Universal joint 258
13.13 Screw hose clamps 259
14 Oil seal and gasket 261
14.1 Introduction 261
14.2 Material selection 262
14.3 Why garter spring is needed? 265
14.4 Shelf life 265
14.5 Procedure for installation 266
14.6 Reasons for seal failure 268
14.7 Gasket 268
14.8 Effecting a seal 269
14.9 Installation of gasket 270
15 Gears 272
15.1 Introduction 272
15.2 Spur gear 272
15.3 Helical gears 276
15.4 Worm gears 279
15.5 Bevel gears 282
15.6 Gear trains 284
15.7 Black lash 287
15.8 Lubrication 288
15.9 Reasons for the failure of gear teeth 289
16 Compressed air 290
16.1 Introduction 290
16.2 Compression of air 291
16.3 Free air or atmospheric air 291
16.4 Analyzing compressed air needs 293
16.5 Production of compressed air 294
16.6 How to specify the right compressor type, capacity and pressure? 297
16.7 Receiver or tank size for air compressor 301
16.8 Moisture 302
16.9 Quality of water required for compressor 305
16.10 What is oil free compressed air? 306
16.11 Air distribution systems 306
16.12 Pneumatic cylinder 309
16.13 Regulator 313
16.14 Lubricator 314
16.15 Moisture separator 316
16.16 Minimum pressure switch 317
16.17 Filters 318
16.18 Safety valves 319
16.19 Non-return valve 320
16.20 Quick release valve 320
16.21 Micro valve 321
16.22 Speed control device 321
16.23 Time delay valve 322
16.24 Port flow control valve 323
16.25 Silencer 323
16.26 Piping 323
16.27 Pressure hoses 324
16.28 Push-type fitting 324
16.29 Threaded connector 325
16.30 Barbed-type connectors 325
16.31 Solenoid valve 326
16.32 Dial indicator 326
16.33 Compressed air system leaks 328
16.34 Leak detection 329
16.35 Pressure drop and controlling system pressure 330
16.36 Compressor air system economics 331
16.37 Maintenance of pneumatic system 332
17 Bearing and its maintenance 333
17.1 Introduction 333
17.2 Bearing 333
17.3 Types of bearing 337
17.4 Roller bearings 342
17.5 Bearing designation 346
17.6 Internal clearance 348
17.7 Withdrawal sleeves with nut and locking washer 349
17.8 Bearing characteristics 350
17.9 Lubrication of bearing 351
17.10 Mounting of different bearings 353
17.11 Dismounting method of different bearing 359
17.12 Reason for failure of bearings 361
17.13 Examinations of bearing in service 362
18 Tools 365
18.1 Open-ended spanner 365
18.2 Ring spanner 366
18.3 Sockets and accessories 367
18.4 Torque wrench sockets 367
18.5 Allen key 368
18.6 Try square 369
18.7 Steel rule 370
18.8 Feeler gauge 372
18.9 Hammers 373
18.10 Soft hammers 375
18.11 Dial gauge 375
18.12 Spirit level 376
18.13 Vernier calliper 378
18.14 Digital vernier calliper 380
18.15 File 381
18.16 Chisels 384
18.17 Screw driver 384
18.18 Vices 386
18.19 Punch 387
18.20 Hacksaw 388
18.21 Taps 389
18.22 Die and die stock 391
18.23 Grinding wheels 393
18.24 Pliers 394
18.25 Stud extractor 395
18.26 Kit for mounting of bearing 396
18.27 Pullers 398
18.28 Micrometer 400
18.29 Drill 401
18.30 Step ladder 402
18.31 Oil cans 403
18.32 Grease gun 404
18.33 Chalk line 404
18.34 Knife 405
18.35 Plumb bob 405
18.36 Requirement of tool for erection, installation and maintenance 406
19 Tips to fine tune the spinning machinery 408
19.1 Introduction 408
19.2 Blow room 408
19.3 Card 413
19.4 Drawframe 416
19.5 Comber 417
19.6 Speedframe 419
19.7 Ringframe 421
19.8 Automatic cone winder 426
19.9 Two-for-one twister 432
20 Tips to improve energy saving in spinning mills 435
20.1 Energy 435
20.2 Textile production process 436
20.3 Energy consumption in spinning mill 436
20.4 Maximum cost effectiveness in energy use 438
20.5 Energy conservation measures 438
Index 446

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