Natural Dyes for Textiles: Sources, Chemistry and Applications

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Natural Dyes for Textiles: Sources, Chemistry and Applications
By Padma Shree Vankar
Natural Dyes for Textiles: Sources, Chemistry and Applications

Contents
1A Newer natural dyes for cotton 1
P.S. Vankar
Introduction 1
1A.1 Acacia Arabica bark 2
1A.2 Mahonia napaulensis DC 3
1A.3 Salvia splendens 4
1A.4 Canna indica 5
1A.5 Rhododendron arboreum 7
1A.6 Cosmos sulphureus 8
1A.7 Terminalia arjuna 9
1A.8 Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi Leaves) 11
1A.9 Rubia cordifolia Linn. 12
References 14
1B Description of the newer natural dye sources suitable for silk fabrics 17
P.S. Vankar
Introduction 17
Studies on silk 17
1B.1 Black carrot/Dacus carota 17
1B.2 Hibiscus-rosa sinensis 19
1B.3 Delonix regia 20
1B.4 Plumeria rubra (pink) 21
1B.5 Combretum indicum 22
1B.6 Ixora coccinea 24
1B.7 Bischofia javanica 25
References 26
1C Description of the newer natural dye sources suitable for wool yarn 29
P.S. Vankar
1C.1 Celosia cristata 29
1C.2 Nerium oleander 30
References 32
1D Special case study: Dyeing of cotton, silk, and wool with natural dyes 33
P.S. Vankar
1D.1 Alcea rosea 33
1D.2 Hibiscus mutabilis (Gulzuba) 34
1D.3 Cayratia carnosa Gagn. or Vitis trifolia 36
1D.4 Tegetes erecta 37
1D.5 Nephelium lappaceum (Rambutan) pericarp 39
1D.6 Curcuma domestica Valet extract 40
References 41

2 Isolation and characterization of the colorant molecules
from each dye plant 45
P.S. Vankar
Introduction 45
2.1 Chemical characterization of the acacia bark extract 46
2.2 Chemical characterization of the Mahonia stem extract 48
2.3 Chemical characterization of the colorant Salvia flower extract 49
2.4 Chemical characterization of Canna flower extract 50
2.5 Chemical characterization of Rhododendron flower extract 53
2.6 Chemical characterization Cosmos flower 54
2.7 Chemical composition of Terminalia arjuna extract 57
2.8 Chemical characterization of black carrot 59
2.9 Chemical characterization of Hibiscus rosa sinensis 61
2.10 Chemical characterization of Delonix regia flower 62
2.11 Chemical characterization of Plumeria flower 65
2.12 Chemical characterization of Combretum (madhumalti) flower 67
2.13 Chemical characterization of the Ixora flower extract 68
2.14 Chemical characterization of Bischofia extract 70
2.15 Chemical characterization of Celosia crisata (Murgkesh) 72
2.16 Chemical characterization of Nerium 73
2.17 Chemical characterization of hollyhock 75
2.18 Chemical characterization of Hibiscus mutabilis flower 78
2.19 Chemical characterization of Cayratia carnosa fruit extract 81
2.20 Chemical characterization of Tegetus erecta flower 82
2.21 Chemical characterization of Curcuma 85
References 86

3 Structure-mordant interaction, replacement by biomordants and enzymes 89
P.S. Vankar
3.1 Introduction 89
3.2 Mordanting 90
3.3 Use of metals, biomordant, and enzymes as mordant for different dyes 93
3.4 Conclusion 100
Further Reading 101
References 101

4 Dyeing application of newer natural dyes on cotton silk and wool with fastness properties, CIE lab values and shade card 103
D. Shukla, P.S. Vankar
4.1 Introduction 103
References 109
4A Dyeing of cotton by different new natural dyeing sources 111
D. Shukla, P.S. Vankar
4A.1 Dyeing of Acacia bark on cotton 111
4A.2 Dyeing of Mahonia on cotton 112
4A.3 Dyeing cotton with Salvia flowers 114
4A.4 Dyeing of cotton fabric by Canna 116
4A.5 Dyeing with Rhododendron 123
4A.6 Dyeing cotton with cosmos 126
4A.7 Dyeing cotton with Terminalia arjuna 130
4A.8 Ultrasound energized dyeing of cotton by Tulsi leaves
(Ocimum sanctum) extract 131
4A.9 Ecofriendly sonicator dyeing of cotton with Rubia cordifolia Linn. using biomordant 134
Conclusion 139
Further Reading 139
References 140
4B Dyeing application of newer natural dyes on silk with fastness properties, CIE lab values, and shade card 141
D. Shukla, P.S. Vankar
Introduction 141
4B.1 Silk dyeing with extract of Black carrot 141
4B.2 Silk dyeing with anthocyanins from Hibiscus rosa sinensis flowers 143
4B.3 Silk dyeing with Delonix regia 146
4B.4 Silk dyeing with Plumeria rubra 151
4B.5 Dyeing with Combretum (Quisqualis indica) flowers 155
4B.6 Silk dyeing with Ixora coccinea 158
4B.7 Silk dyeing with Bischofia javanica Bl. (Maub) 161
Conclusion 165
Further Reading 165
References 166
4C Dyeing application of newer natural dyes on wool with fastness properties, CIE lab values and shade card 167
D. Shukla, P.S. Vankar
Introduction 167
Wool dyeing 167
4C.1 Wool dyeing with Celosia cristata flower 168
4C.2 Wool dyeing with Nerium oleander flower 172
4C.3 Wool dyeing with hollyhock 174
4C.4 Wool dyeing with Hibiscus mutabilis 177
4C.5 Wool dyeing with Cayratia cornosa 178
4C.6 Wool dyeing with Tagetes erecta 180
4C.7 Wool dyeing with extract of Nephelium Lappaceum (Rambutan) 184
4C.8 Wool dyeing with Curcuma domestica Valet extract 186
Conclusion 189
Furher Reading 189
References 189

5 Innovative dye extraction methods 191
D. Shukla, P.S. Vankar
Introduction 191
5.1 Innovation in extraction process 192
5.2 Innovation in extraction process for newer natural dyes 196
Conclusion 202
Further Reading 202
References 202

6 Unique pretreatments and posttreatments for natural dyeing 205
D. Shukla, P.S. Vankar
Introduction 205
6.1 Pre and post treatments 205
Conclusion 218
Further Reading 218
References 219
Index 223

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