Plasma Technologies for Textile and Apparel | S K Nema and P B Jhala

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Plasma Technologies for Textile and Apparel
Edited by S. K. Nema and P. B. Jhala
Plasma Technologies for Textile and Apparel

Contents
Preface ix
Foreword xv
Contributors xix

1. Basics of plasma and its industrial applications in textiles 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Electric breakdown of gases 3
1.3 Paschen’s law for gas breakdown 5
1.4 Discharge current-voltage characteristics 6
1.5 Plasma surface interactions 11
1.6 Summary 27
1.7 References 28

2. Atmospheric pressure plasma processing of textiles at FCIPT 30
2.1 Introduction 30
2.2 Status of atmospheric pressure plasma in the world 33
2.3 Non-thermal plasma at atmospheric pressure 36
2.4 Influence of process and plasma parameters and scaling up of system 41 
2.5 Plasma textile interaction 43
2.6 Atmospheric pressure plasma technologies developed at FCIPT for textiles 46
2.7 Future directions 61
2.8 Summary 61
2.9 References 62

3. Atmospheric pressure plasma polymerization of HMDSO on different textile fibres and their studies 65
3.1 Introduction 65
3.2 Experimental 67
3.3 Characterization 68
3.4 Results and discussion 69
3.5 Summary 87
3.6 References 88

4. In-situ plasma reactions for hydrophobic functionalization of textiles 91
4.1 Introduction 91
4.2 Surface properties and wettability 92
4.3 Challenges in hydrophobic functionalization of textiles using atmospheric pressure glow plasma 95
4.4 Effect of different parameters on plasma reactions 97
4.5 In-situ hydrophobic functionalization of textiles using gaseous precursor 98
4.6 In-situ hydrophobic functionalization of textile using liquid precursor 113 
4.7 Summary 132
4.8 References 133 

5. In-situ plasma reactions for hydrophilic functionalization of textile substrates 135
5.1 Introduction 135
5.2 Plasma processing of textiles 137
5.3 Mechanism of hydrophilic finishing 138
5.4 Generation and characterization of plasma 139
5.5 Application of plasma in textile chemical processing 144
5.6 Stability of hydrophilic finish 173
5.7 Breaking strength 181
5.8 Summary 181
5.9 References 184

6. Plasma processing of textiles to enhance their dyeing and surface properties 189
6.1 Introduction 189
6.2 Classification of plasmas 190
6.3 Plasma interactions with substrate 192
6.4 Plasma processing of textiles 195
6.5 Plasma treatment for enhancing dyeing 200
6.6 Plasma for creating anti-bacterial and anti-flammable fabrics 219
6.7 Industry relevance of our work 220
6.8 Acknowledgement 221
6.9 References 221

7. Next to skin easy care woolens by plasma and other eco-friendly technologies 231
7.1 Introduction 231
7.2 Fabric-evoked itch and prickle 232
7.3 Shrink proofing processes 239
7.4 Future trends 247
7.5 Sources of further information 248
7.6 References 248

8. Low pressure air plasma for processing of silk textiles 255
8.1 Introduction 255
8.2 Classification of silk 255
8.3 Silk formation and properties 256
8.4 Silk wet processing technology 260
8.5 Plasma technology 260
8.6 Materials and methods 261
8.7 Conclusion 270
8.8 References 270

9. RF plasma treatment of Muga silk and its characterization 272
9.1 Introduction 272
9.2 Experimental 274
9.3 Results and discussion 277
9.4 Industrial scale-up and marketing 290
9.5 Conclusion 291
9.6 References 291

10. Cold plasma for dry processing, functionalization and finishing of textile materials 294
10.1 Introduction 294
10.2 Principle of cold plasma treatment of textiles 297
10.3 Low temperature plasma (LTP) treatment of textile materials 306 
10.4 Current situation of plasma technology in textiles 313
10.5 Characterization 315
10.6 Advantages and shortcomings of plasma technology 318
10.7 Conclusions 319
10.8 References 319

11. Nanotitania synthesis and its integration in textiles using plasma technology 323
11.1 Introduction 323
11.2 Fabric pre-treatment by plasma 327
11.3 Methods of nanomaterial synthesis 327
11.4 Nanotitania synthesis and its application in textiles at FCIPT 331
11.5 Potential hazards of nanotitania for human skin 341
11.6 Conclusion 343
11.7 Acknowledgement 344
11.8 References 344

12. Plasma textile technology status, techno-economics, limitations and industrial usage potential 346
12.1 Introduction 346
12.2 Technology status 347
12.3 Industrial use 348
12.4 Techno-economics 356
12.5 Other applications 358
12.6 Challenges and opportunities 359
12.7 Conclusions 359
12.8 References 359

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