Polyolefin Fibres: Structure, Properties and Industrial Applications

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Polyolefin Fibres: Structure, Properties and Industrial Applications, 2nd Edition
Edited by: Samuel C.O. Ugbolue
Polyolefin Fibres: Structure, Properties and Industrial Applications

Contents
List of Contributors xi
Preface xv 

Part I Structure and properties of polyolefin fibres 1
1 Types of polyolefin fibres 3
A. Crangle
1.1 Introduction 3
1.2 Definitions of polymers, fibres and polyolefins 4
1.3 Chemistry of alkene (olefin) monomers 4
1.4 Polymers and polymerization reactions 6
1.5 Stereochemistry and the structure of polyolefins 8
1.6 Polyethylene fibres 14
1.7 Polypropylene fibres 15
1.8 Polyolefin fibres from copolymers 17
1.9 Polyolefin fibres from polymer blends or alloys 19
1.10 Polyolefin bi-component fibres 21
1.11 Polyolefin nanocomposite fibres 22
1.12 Classification of polyolefin fibres and textiles 23
1.13 Future trends 23
1.14 Conclusions 26
1.15 Sources of further information and advice 27
References 28
2 The structural and chemical properties of polyolefin fibres 33
Robert R. Mather
2.1 Introduction 33
2.2 Arrangements of polyolefin chains 34
2.3 Crystalline structures 36
2.4 Crystal morphology 38
2.5 Chemical properties 39
2.6 Oxidation of polyolefin fibres 39
2.7 Stabilizers 44
2.8 Surface chemistry of polyolefin fibres 50
2.9 Sources of further information 55
References 55
3 The structural mechanics of polyolefin fibrous materials and
nanocomposites 59
Samuel C.O. Ugbolue
3.1 Introduction 59
3.2 The structure and mechanics of polyolefin fibrous materials 60
3.3 The mechanical properties of polyolefin fibres and films 61
3.4 Characterization of polyolefin fibrous materials
and nanocomposites 68
3.5 Structure_property improvements of polyolefin nanocomposites 72
3.6 Fibre-reinforced polyolefins 80
3.7 Design and fabrication of polyolefin auxetic textile structures 80
3.8 Concluding remarks 82
Acknowledgment 82
References 82
Further reading 88
4 Polyolefins and the environment 89
Oluranti Agboola, Rotimi Sadiku, Touhami Mokrani, Ismael Amer and Odunayo Imoru
4.1 Introduction 89
References 123
5 The use of polyolefins in industrial and medical applications 135
Yong K. Kim
5.1 Introduction 135
5.2 Technical textile applications of polyolefins 138
5.3 Polyolefin fibre types and properties 139
5.4 Technical textile structures from polyolefin fibres 141
5.5 Industrial applications of polyolefin fibres 146
5.6 Conclusion and future trends 153
References 154
6 Advances in polyolefin-based spunbond and binder fibres 157
Rajen M. Patel, Jill Martin, Gert Claasen and Thomas Allgeuer
6.1 Introduction 157
6.2 Monocomponent polyethylene-based soft spunbond fabrics 159
6.3 Monocomponent polypropylene-based soft spunbond fabrics 170
6.4 Bi-component spunbond fabric and bi-component binder fibres 174
Summary 182
Acknowledgments 183
References 183

Part II Improving the functionality of polyolefins 187
7 Production of polyolefins 189
Richard Kotek, Mehdi Afshari, Huseyin Avci and Mesbah Najafi
7.1 Introduction 189
7.2 Manufacturing of polyolefins 190
7.3 Melt spinning of PP 209
7.4 Melt spinning of PE 246
7.5 High performance-technical polypropylene fibres and yarns 250
7.6 Other production methods for polyolefins 253
References 261
8 Enhancing hygiene/antimicrobial properties of polyolefins 265
Mohammad Badrossamay and Gang Sun
8.1 Introduction 265
8.2 Antimicrobial functions 266
8.3 Antimicrobial polyolefins 267
8.4 Future trends 280
References 281
Further reading 284
9 Improving the use of polyolefins in nonwovens 285
Sanjiv R. Malkan
9.1 Introduction 285
9.2 Nonwoven definition 287
9.3 Nonwoven market 288
9.4 Classification of nonwoven fabrics 289
9.5 Finishing of nonwovens 299
9.6 Characteristics and properties of nonwoven fabrics 300
9.7 Consumption profile of polyolefin in nonwovens 301
9.8 Applications of polyolefin nonwovens 308
9.9 Future trends 309
References 310
10 Testing, product evaluation and quality control of polyolefins 313
Samuel C.O. Ugbolue
10.1 Introduction 313
10.2 Testing and characterization of polyolefins 314
10.3 Selected product analysis and performance evaluation:
Case study on polyolefin nanocomposites 325
10.4 Evaluation of auxetic textile structures 333
10.5 Quality control considerations 335
Acknowledgment 336
References 336
Further reading 338
11 Polyolefin nanocomposite fibres and films 339
Qinguo Fan
11.1 Introduction 339
11.2 Polyolefin nanocomposite fibres and films 339
11.3 Preparation of polyolefin nanocomposite fibres and films 342
11.4 Characterization and analysis 343
11.5 Applications of polyolefin nanocomposites 348
11.6 Chemical applications 350
11.7 Conclusions 353
Acknowledgments 354
References 354
12 Improving the coloration/dyeability of polyolefin fibres 359
Renzo Shamey
12.1 Introduction 359
12.2 Overview of structural features of polyolefins 359
12.3 An overview of dye_fibre interactions 362
12.4 Colorants 364
12.5 Coloration of unmodified polyolefins 364
12.6 Improving coloration of PP through fibre modification 377
12.7 Conclusions 382
Acknowledgments 383
References 383
Further reading 388

Part III Enhanced applications and uses of polyolefin fibres 389
13 Improving wear resistance of polyolefins 391
Vincent Ojijo and Emmanuel R. Sadiku
13.1 Introduction 391
13.2 Types of polyolefin 392
13.3 Polyethylene 392
13.4 Polypropylene 395
13.5 Wear in polymers 397
Conclusions 415
References 415
14 Improving the thermal and flame resistance properties of polyolefins 421
Stephen C. Agwuncha, Idowu D. Ibrahim and Emmanuel R. Sadiku
14.1 Introduction 421
14.2 Thermal properties of polyolefins 422
14.3 Factors affecting the thermal properties of polyolefins 423
14.4 Improving the thermal properties of polyolefins 425
14.5 Effect of nanoparticles loading on the thermal properties of polyolefins 430
14.6 Flame resistance properties of polyolefins 434
14.7 Factors affecting the flame resistance properties of polyolefins 434
14.8 Improving the flame resistance properties of polyolefins 435
14.9 Future trends 438
14.10 Conclusion 438
References 439
Further reading 447
15 Automotive components composed of polyolefins 449
Rotimi Sadiku, David Ibrahim, Oluranti Agboola, Shesan J. Owonubi,
Victoria O. Fasiku, Williams K. Kupolati, Tamba Jamiru, Azunna A. Eze,
Oludaisi S. Adekomaya, Kokkarachedu Varaprasad, Stephen C. Agwuncha,
Abbavaram B. Reddy, Bandla Manjula, Bilainu Oboirien, Clara Nkuna,
Mbuso Dludlu, Adetona Adeyeye, Tobi S. Osholana, Goitse Phiri,
Olayinka Durowoju, Peter A. Olubambi, Frank Biotidara, Mercy
Ramakokovhu, Brendon Shongwe and Vincent Ojijo
15.1 Introduction: brief survey of polyolefin resins and their general properties 449
15.2 Types of polyolefins 452
15.3 Ethylene copolymers 457
15.4 PP and its composites 459
15.5 Polyolefin-based nanocomposites 465
15.6 Foamable and expandable polyolefins 467
15.7 Sun visors 472
15.8 EPRs—ethylene propylene diene and ethylene propylene copolymers 472
15.9 Other poly(α-olefins) 473
15.10 Cyclo-olefin copolymers: properties and applications 474
15.11 Chlorinated PE and chlorosulfonated PE 475
15.12 Thermoplastic elastomers 475
15.13 Specific automotive components made of polyolefin-based materials 482
15.14 Future trend 489
15.15 Conclusions 490
References 492
16 The use of polyolefins in geotextiles and engineering applications 497
Williams K. Kupolati, Emmanuel R. Sadiku, Idowu D. Ibrahim,
Adeyemi O. Adeboje, Chewe Kambole, Olukayode O.S. Ojo,
Azunna A. Eze, Philip Paige-Green and Julius M. Ndambuki
16.1 Introduction 497
16.2 Definitions of polyolefins and geotextiles 497
16.3 Types and properties of polyolefins and geotextiles 498
16.4 Polyolefins in geotextiles 502
16.5 Applications of polyolefins in engineering 511
16.6 Future trends 512
16.7 Conclusion 513
Acknowledgements 514
References 514
Further reading 516
17 Biomedical applications of polyolefins 517
Shesan J. Owonubi, Stephen C. Agwuncha, Victoria O. Fasiku,
Emmanuel Mukwevho, Blessing A. Aderibigbe, Emmanuel R. Sadiku
and Deon Bezuidenhout
17.1 Introduction 517
17.2 Biomedical applications of polyolefins 520
17.3 Conclusion 527
17.4 Further reading 528
Acknowledgements 528
References 529
18 Use of polyolefins in hygienic applications 539
Bandla Manjula, Abbavaram B. Reddy, Emmanuel R. Sadiku,
Veluri Sivanjineyulu, Gomotsegang F. Molelekwa, Jarugala Jayaramudu
and Kasilingam Raj Kumar
18.1 Introduction 539
18.2 Common types of polyolefins polymers 540
18.3 Structure, properties, and applications of polyolefins 540
18.4 Hygienic 544
18.5 Hygienic applications 547
18.6 Filters 555
18.7 Hygienic bands 555
18.8 Surgical masks 556
18.9 Conclusions 558
Acknowledgment 558
References 558
Index 561


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