Principles of Textile Finishing | Asim Kumar Roy Choudhury

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Principles of Textile Finishing
By Asim Kumar Roy Choudhury
Principles of Textile Finishing

Contents
1 Introduction to finishing 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Object of finishing 1
1.3 Classification of finishes 2
1.4 Physical finishing 3
1.5 Functional finishes 4
1.6 Chemical finishes 5
1.7 Plasma finishing 6
1.8 Coated fabric 7
1.9 Application of chemical finish 7
1.10 Padding mangle 8
1.11 Low-pickup padding 11
1.12 Vacuum slot or suction hydroextractor 13
1.13 Drying and curing 15
1.14 Stenter or tenter 16
1.15 Conclusion 18
References 19

2 Surface finishing 21
2.1 Introduction 21
2.2 Calenders 21
2.3 Sueding or emerising 31
2.4 Raising or napping 33
2.5 Stenter finish 36
2.6 Conclusions 38
References 39

3 Antishrink finishing 41
3.1 Introduction 41
3.2 Shrinkage 41
3.3 Shrinkage of woven fabric 44
3.4 Shrinkage of knitted fabric 44
3.5 Shrinkage of woollen fabric 45
3.6 Causes of shrinkage 45
3.7 Measurement of residual shrinkage 46
3.8 Shrink-proofing methods 48
3.9 Sanforising machine 50
3.10 Rigmel finish 53
3.11 Confining passage type 54
3.12 Compactors for knitted fabric 54
3.13 Conclusion 59
References 59

4 Starch finishing 61
4.1 Introduction 61
4.2 Handle modifier finishes 61
4.3 Starch 62
4.4 Starch as a finish 66
4.5 Composition of finish 67
4.6 Synthetic polymers 69
4.7 Mangles 72
4.8 Cylinder dryers 74
4.9 Conditioning and damping 75
4.10 Future trends 76
References 77 

5 Acid–alkali finish 79
5.1 Introduction 79
5.2 Theory of mercerisation 81
5.3 Effects of mercerisation 82
5.4 Classification of mercerisation processes 88
5.5 Yarn mercerisation 89
5.6 Fabric mercerisation 93
5.7 Slack mercerisation 99
5.8 Mercerisation of knitwear 99
5.9 Addition mercerisation 100
5.10 Control of caustic concentration 101
5.11 Liquid ammonia mercerisation 102
5.12 Barium activity number 104
5.13 Parchmentising or organdie finish 105
5.14 Conclusions 106
References 107

6 Softening 109
6.1 Introduction 109
6.2 Properties of softeners 111
6.3 Chemistry of softeners 112
6.4 Silicone softeners 120
6.5 Mechanism of action 134
6.6 Additives 136
6.7 Estimation of active matter content 138
6.8 Measurement of softness 140
6.9 Effect on sewability 144
6.10 Effect on pilling 145
6.11 Future trends 146
References 146

7 Repellent finishes 149
7.1 Introduction 149
7.2 Water-repellent versus waterproof 149
7.3 Easy-care finish 151
7.4 Theory of wetting 151
7.5 Theory of repellency 159
7.6 Water proofing and water repellency 161
7.7 Repellent finishes 163
7.8 Soil release finish 180
7.9 Stain and soil retardancy 182
7.10 Stain blockers 183
7.11 Petal effect and lotus effect 185
7.12 Health hazards 186
7.13 Test methods 187
7.14 Future trends 190
References 191 

8 Flame- and fire-retardant finishes 195
8.1 Introduction 195
8.2 Definitions of terms 197
8.3 Flammability of textile fibres 198
8.4 Flame retardants 201
8.5 Mechanism of flame retardancy 202
8.6 FR finishing of cotton 210
8.7 FR finishing of rayon 221
8.8 FR finishing of wool 222
8.9 FR finishing of polyester 222
8.10 FR finishing of nylon 224
8.11 FR finishing of acrylic 224
8.12 FR finishing of polypropylene 224
8.13 FR finishing of fibre blends 225
8.14 Afterglow 226
8.15 Smoke and its reduction 227
8.16 Test methods 230
8.17 FR and environment 237
8.18 Halogen-free FRs 238
References 242

9 Easy-care finishing 245
9.1 Introduction 245
9.2 Definitions 246
9.3 Reasons for crease formation 249
9.4 Factors affecting wrinkling 252
9.5 Prevention of shrinkage and crease 252
9.6 Resin finishing 253
9.7 Effects on fabric properties 255
9.8 Cellulose cross-linkers 257
9.9 Formaldehyde-based finish 258
9.10 Formaldehyde-free finishes 270
9.11 Ionic cross-linking 276
9.12 Application methods 277
9.13 Formaldehyde release 280
9.14 Formaldehyde testing 281
9.15 Future trends 282
References 283

10 Antistatic and soil-release finishes 285
10.1 Introduction 285
10.2 Generation of static electricity 286
10.3 Static charges and textile materials 287
10.4 Human body and static energy 288
10.5 Measurement of static energy 289
10.6 Control of static electricity 291
10.7 Chemistry of antistatic finish 294
10.8 Static propensity of fibres 297
10.9 Methods of application 298
10.10 Performance evaluation 299
10.11 Soils 299
10.12 Means of soiling 300
10.13 Factors affecting soil release 301
10.14 Detergency and soil release 303
10.15 Soil-release finishes 305
10.16 Evaluation of soil release 313
10.17 Future trends 315
References 316

11 Finishes for protection against microbial, insect and UV radiation 319
11.1 Introduction 319
11.2 Definitions 320
11.3 Growth of microorganism 321
11.4 Antimicrobial effect 323
11.5 Mechanisms 324
11.6 Means for antimicrobial 327
11.7 Antimicrobial fibres 328
11.8 Antimicrobial finishes 328
11.9 Sanitised finishes 332
11.10 Fungicidal finishes 337
11.11 Antibacterial finish 339
11.12 Various microbial finishes 340
11.13 Biopolymers 348
11.14 Application methods 354
11.15 Antimicrobial dyes 355
11.16 Test methods 355
11.17 Insect-resistant finishes 359
11.18 UV-protective finish 368
11.19 Future trends 376
References 378 

12 Finishing of denim fabrics 383
12.1 Introduction 383
12.2 Denim dyeing 384
12.3 Selection of denim fabric 386
12.4 Denim washing 388
12.5 Processing steps 389
12.6 Garment washing 390
12.7 Types of garment washing 390
12.8 Denim finishing 406
12.9 Impact on environment 408
12.10 Future trends 413
References 414 

13 Wool and silk finishing processes 417
13.1 Introduction 417
13.2 Felting of wool 417
13.3 Prevention and control of shrinkage 420
13.4 Fulling or milling 430
13.5 Setting 431
13.6 Fundamentals of silk finishing 437
13.7 Mechanical finishing of silk 438
13.8 Chemical finishing of silk 442
13.9 Conclusions 461
References 462

14 Various ecofriendly finishes 467
14.1 Introduction 467
14.2 Process control 471
14.3 Biofinishing 476
14.4 Use of biopolymers 487
14.5 Energy-saving finishing 488
14.6 Plasma treatment 498
14.7 Equipment for LPP 506
14.8 Future trends 519
References 520
Index 527

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