Sustainable Fashion and Textiles: Design Journeys

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Sustainable Fashion and Textiles: Design Journeys
by Kate Fletcher

Contents
List of Figures, Tables and Images VI
Acknowledgements IX
Introduction XI
Part 1 Sustainable Fashion and Textile Products 1
Chapter 1 Material Diversity 3
Chapter 2 Ethically Made 41
Chapter 3 Use Matters 75
Chapter 4 Reuse, Recycling and Zero Waste 95
Part 2 Sustainable Fashion and Textile Systems 115
Chapter 5 Fashion, Needs and Consumption 117
Chapter 6 Local and Light 137
Chapter 7 Speed 161
Chapter 8 User Maker 185
Notes 203
Appendix Image Sources 221
Index 227

List of Figures, Tables and Images

Figures
1.1 Energy and water consumption in the production of selected fibre types 16
2.1 Map of key processes, inputs and outputs in the textile production chain 47
2.2 Negative feedback loop 64
2.3 Positive feedback loop 65
3.1 Lifecycle impacts for a women’s polyester blouse 78
3.2 Types of sustainable design innovation 80
7.1 Layers of activity in a resilient human civilization 2/163
7.2 Energy requirements per wearing of a polyester blouse for a range of use scenarios 171

Tables
1.1 World fibre demand in 2005 6
1.2 Textile fibre types 8
1.3 Environmental cost of each stage in the lifecycle of a cotton T-shirt 17
1.4 Toxicity profile of a conventionally grown cotton T-shirt 19
1.5 Average natural fibre production per hectare 27
2.1 Types of pollution associated with dyeing a range of fibres 52
2.2 Summary of developments in dye chemistry 53
3.1 A rough guide to relative impact of textile products throughout life 77
5.1 Fundamental human needs 121
7.1 Characteristics of ecosystems in different stages of evolution 174

Images
Eco jeans in 100 per cent organic cotton with sustainable product
components and production processes by Levi’s 20
White 100 per cent African cotton dress by Noir 24
Ardalanish organic wool tweed by Isle of Mull Weavers 26
Bette hemp dress by Enamore 28
Woven fabric in 100 per cent peace silk by Denise Bird Woven Textiles 29
T-shirt in 100 per cent Ingeo by Moral Fervor 30
Suit in lyocell by Linda Loudermilk 31
Black dress in bamboo viscose by Linda Loudermilk 33
Yarn made from 50 per cent recycled London textiles and 50 per cent pure
new wool by EcoAnnie 36
T-shirts in 100 per cent Fairtrade mark cotton by Marks and Spencer 63
ONE T-shirt made from 100 per cent Lesotho cotton by EDUN 66
Pillows produced by Armenian craftspeople supported by Aid to Artisans 68
Made-By button indicating supply chain transparency 69
Purple hooded sweatshirt and white T-shirt by American Apparel 70
Slip dress in 100 per cent silk by Dosa 72
Modular garments designed for low laundering 85
No Wash top produced as part of the 5 Ways Project 88 and 89
Stain dress by Lauren Montgomery Devenney 90
Windows blanket by LoooLo 97
Back2Back dress by Junky Styling 102
Reused yarn vest by Muji 104
Synchilla Snap-T fleece by Patagonia 110
Upholstery fabric in wool and ramie by Climatex Lifecycle 112
Caress Dress produced as part of the 5 Ways Project 123
Organic cotton T-shirt and jeans by Howies 128 and 129
Green contrasting stitching on organic cotton T-shirt by American Apparel 131
Modular concept top by Ariel Bishop 133
Skull dress by Project Alabama 142 and 143
Jacket made from 100 per cent hemp grown in England from fibre grown and
processed by Bioregional and designed by Katherine Hamnett 148
Fly skirt in organic tweed, part of the Ardalanish Collection by Anja Hynynen
for Isle of Mull Weavers 150
Moth blanket by Joanna Notkin 151
Efficient pattern cutting concept shirt by Andrew Hague 153
JP Donleavy shrug, Spring/Summer 2005, 100 per cent cotton by Keep and Share 156
Eugenia dress, Spring/Summer 2006, 100 per cent cotton by Keep and Share 167
Blue velour pleated furnishing fabric by Sigrid Smits 169
Oversized labels and clothes rails in Itaylan Avlusu project swap ‘shop’ set up by Otto von Busch 170
One-night wonder 177
Fancy pants 179
Who wears the trousers? 181
Great coat 183
Hand-stitched recycled quilt by Alabama Chanin 189
High bag pants by Wronsov a.k.a. Otto von Busch 195
Short sleeve suit, vest suit and oblique collar shirt by Wronsov a.k.a. Otto von Busch 196
T-construction night at Matrushka 198
do shirt by do/KesselsKramer 199
Updatable T-shirt produced as part of the 5 Ways Project 200


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