An Introduction to Healthcare and Medical Textiles by Wen Zhong

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An Introduction to Healthcare and Medical Textiles
by Wen Zhong
An Introduction to Healthcare and Medical Textiles

Table of Contents
Preface ix
1. Introduction 1
1.1. Materials for Healthcare and Medical Textiles 3
1.2. Applications of Healthcare and Medical Textiles 4
1.3. Summary 6
1.4. References 6

PART I—BASICS
2. Textile Materials and Structures . 9
2.1. Materials and Structures Used for Healthcare and
Medical Textile Products 9
2.2. Polymers 11
2.3. Fibers 15
2.4. Yarns 26
2.5. Fabrics and 3D Structures 27
2.6. Fiber-Reinforced Composites 33
2.7. Finishing for Textile Products 34
2.8. Summary 35
2.9. References 36
3. Medical and Healthcare Nanofibers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
3.1. Fabrication of Nanofibers 37
3.2. Biopolymers Used for Nanofibers 44
3.3. Modification of Nanofibers 52
3.4. Biomedical Applications of Nanofibers 60
3.5. Summary 62
3.6. References 62
4. Textiles as a Source of Comfort and Healthcare Problems . . . . . . . . . . 69
4.1. Microclimate and Thermophysiological Comfort 70
4.2. Textile/Skin Interaction and Sensorial Comfort 81
4.3. Types of Fiber as Related to Comfort 86
4.4. Textile-Related Healthcare Problems 89
4.5. Summary 93
4.6. References 94
5. Biocompatibility, Bioresorbability, and Biostability: Solutions and Beyond . . 97
5.1. Biocompatibility 97
5.2. Bioresorbability and Biostability 102
5.3. Summary 113
5.4. References 114

PART II—APPLICATIONS
6. Disposable Hygiene Textiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
6.1. The Diaper 119
6.2. Other Disposable Hygiene Textiles 127
6.3. Environmental Issues 129
6.4. Summary 131
6.5. References 133
7. Healthcare Protective Textiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
7.1. Textiles for Infection Control 136
7.2. Flame Retardant (FR) Textiles 148
7.3. Antistatic Textiles 156
7.4. Summary 158
7.5. References 160
8. Textiles for Wound Care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
8.1. Human Skin and Skin Wounds 166
8.2. Wound Dressing and Wound Dressing Materials 170
8.3. Pressure Garment 188
8.4. Summary 188
8.5. References 189
9. Biotextiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
9.1. Sutures 193
9.2. Vascular Grafts 200
9.3. Ligament Prosthesis 213
9.4. Hernia Repair Mesh Grafts 215
9.5. Extracorporeal Devices: Artificial Kidney 217
9.6. Summary 223
9.7. References 225
10. Tissue Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
10.1. Bioengineered Skin Grafts 233
10.2. Bioengineered Vascular Grafts 237
10.3. Bioengineered Extracorporeal Devices 243
10.4. Summary 245
10.5. References 246
11. Intelligent Medical and Healthcare Textiles . . . . . . . . 251
11.1. Intelligent Materials 251
11.2. Intelligent Textile Products 259
11.3. Summary 268
11.4. References 269
Glossary 273
Appendix 283
Index 285

Preface
FOR eight years at University of Manitoba I’ve been teaching two courses related to what I am writing about: Textiles for the Healthcare Sectors and Advanced Textiles for the Healthcare Sectors. All these years, I’ve tried in vain to find for my students a textbook that is commercially available. Dealing with an interdisciplinary topic, I’ve been trying to accommodate the needs of students for such varied areas as materials (including textiles) science and engineering, biomedical engineering, and health studies. On the one hand, students with a background in materials science and engineering may have difficulties understanding the basic mechanisms of the interaction between biotextiles and host cells/tissues; on the other hand, students without the background in textiles may get confused with the various textile structures, including wovens, knits and different types of nonwovens. Similarly, when I am approached by graduate students or professionals in the areas of Materials Science or Biomedicine for a book that will give them some background knowledge about fibers and textiles and how their structures and properties influence their biomedical applications, I’ve had similar difficulties recommending sources that are tailored to their needs. Such experience has caused me to believe that it is a good idea to write a book of this nature.

The text of this book is organized into two parts besides the first introductory chapter. Four chapters dealing with the basics of what is involved in the area of healthcare textiles comprise Part I. The six-chapter Part II addresses the various applications of healthcare/medical textiles.

Introductory in nature, this is a textbook for students but, since it also includes the latest developments in the related areas, it also suits the needs of professionals who happen to want to learn the basics of fibers and textile structures that can be used in the healthcare sectors, as well as information on design and product development in medical and healthcare textiles. To that end, I have tried to connect the basics of textile engineering and related concepts to the design and development of textile materials and structures for medical end uses. The text of the book is prepared in such a way as to accommodate readers with different backgrounds and intentions, and those who wish to get deeper into a related subject discussed in the book can refer themselves to the abundant literature at the end of each chapter. Specifically, this book is intended to benefit:

  1. Senior undergraduate students or graduate students in the disciplines of Textile Sciences, Materials Science and Engineering, or Biomedical Engineering who need a textbook or reference book;
  2. Professionals in medical/healthcare textile product development who may find a handbook of this nature useful; and
  3. Other professionals (in Materials Science and Engineering, Biomedical Engineering, or Biomedicine) who now and again need to know something about textiles.
At the close of my endeavor, I wish to extend my appreciation to the individuals and parties that have made this book possible. The book would never have been written or be like what it is now had it not been for the opportunity provided by Faculty of Human Ecology, University of Manitoba, an opportunity that has involved me in an interdisciplinary field, provided me valuable interactions and collaborations with researchers in the many related areas, and thus had me well prepared. I also wish to extend thanks to undergraduate and graduate students that I have been working with in the past seven years in my courses about medical textiles. They have had to deal with a situation where the essential textbook is so miserably lacking that they have had to learn their lessons depending on handouts and copies of reading materials from various sources, never making a complaint. Instead, their inputs and suggestions have been valuable for the improvement of the courses, and have certainly functioned as a pat on my back during my efforts to teach and write. I also wish to say a word of thanks to faculty colleagues who have reviewed my book in such a way as to be in a position to help eliminate errors and suggest improvement; they are, especially, Drs. & Professors Lena Horne and Michael Eskin.

Special thanks are due to my family—people who have provided any type of support I need. Among them, my father, Professor Liangming Zhong, has been the first reader of my draft book and has tried to make sure that this book can be understood by those who are totally outside of the field; my husband and collaborator, Dr. Mengqiu (Malcolm) Xing, a professional of Biomaterials and Regenerative Medicine, has provided insights as such.

Finally I wish to express my appreciation to you, readers of the book, who are the ones most likely and able to offer comments and suggestions essential for improvement to be made in the future, which will benefit all who will use the book, including my students and me as a teacher. So let me know such comments and suggestions, please.

It is proper to make known that any reference within this book to any specific commercial or non-commercial product or process by trade name, trade mark, manufacturer or otherwise does not constitute or imply an endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the author.

WEN ZHONG


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