Antimicrobial Textiles Edited by Gang Sun

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Antimicrobial Textiles
Edited by Gang Sun
Antimicrobial Textiles

Contents
List of contributors xi
Woodhead Publishing Series in Textiles xiii
1 Introduction: development of antimicrobial textiles 1
G. Sun
Section One Key issues and technologies in creating antimicrobial textile products 5
2 Testing and regulation of antimicrobial textiles 7
B. Hilgenberg, A. Prange and L. Vossebein
2.1 Introduction 7
2.2 Safety testing 8
2.3 Efficacy testing 10
2.4 Durability testing 14
2.5 Resistance risks 14
2.6 Regulations of antimicrobial textiles 15
2.7 Conclusions 16
References 17
3 Microencapsulation technologies for antimicrobial textiles 19
J. Yip and M.Y.A. Luk
3.1 Introduction 19
3.2 Antimicrobial finishing technologies 20
3.3 Microencapsulation technologies for antimicrobial textiles 25
3.4 Conclusion 39
References 39
4 Sol-gel technology for antimicrobial textiles 47
P.J. Rivero and J. Goicoechea
4.1 Introduction 47
4.2 Sol-gel technology 48
4.3 Antimicrobial treatments for textiles 51
4.4 Conclusions 68
References 69
5 Plasma technology for antimicrobial textiles 73
K. Vaideki
5.1 Introduction 73
5.2 Plasma 73
5.3 Plasma characteristics 74
5.4 Plasma for the textile industry 75
5.5 Plasma processes for the development of antimicrobial textiles 76
5.6 Applications 84
5.7 Future trends 84
5.8 Conclusions 84
References 85
6 Nanotechnology for antimicrobial textiles 87
I.R. Hardin and Y. Kim
6.1 Introduction 87
6.2 Antimicrobials and textiles 87
6.3 Definitions and legal questions regarding the use of the term antimicrobial on textiles 88
6.4 Claims, labels, and language choice 89
6.5 History of antimicrobials applied to textiles 89
6.6 Conventional antimicrobials applied to textiles 90
6.7 Nanotechnology and antimicrobial treatments on fibers 92
References 95
7 Life cycle assessment of reusable hospital textiles with biocidal finish 99
M. Overcash, C. Ponder and G. Sun
7.1 Background 99
7.2 Biocidal protective technology 101
7.3 Life cycle inventory of reduction in hospital-acquired infections 101
7.4 Environmental balance of biocidal-protected patient gowns
versus reduction in hospital-acquired infections 111
References 120
Section Two Antimicrobial agents 123
8 N-halamines as antimicrobial textile finishes 125
X. Ren, Z. Jiang, Y. Liu, L. Li and X. Fan
8.1 Introduction 125
8.2 Modification of textiles with N-halamines 126
8.3 Incorporation of N-halamines in textile fibers 130
8.4 Textiles treated with N-halamines and other antimicrobial agents 133
8.5 Future trends 135
8.6 Conclusions 135
Acknowledgments 135
References 136
9 Halogenated phenols and polybiguanides as antimicrobial textile finishes 141
T. Zhao and Q. Chen
9.1 Introduction 141
9.2 Types of halogenated phenols and polybiguanides 142
9.3 Properties of halogenated phenols and polybiguanides 146
9.4 Antimicrobial mechanisms of halogenated phenols and polybiguanides 146
9.5 Antimicrobial finishing methods 148
9.6 Evaluation of antimicrobial efficiency 150
References 151
10 Plant-based compounds for antimicrobial textiles 155
F. Alihosseini
10.1 Introduction 155
10.2 Plant-based antimicrobial compounds 157
10.3 Antimicrobial natural polymers and fibers 178
References 187
11 Photoactive chemicals for antimicrobial textiles 197
J. Zhuo
11.1 Introduction 197
11.2 Photocatalysts 198
11.3 Organic photo-induced antibacterial agents 204
11.4 Concerns and future perspectives on photoactive antibacterial agents on textile materials 214
11.5 Conclusions 216
References 216
12 Barrier textiles for protection against microbes 225
Y. Zhao, Z. Xu and T. Lin
12.1 Introduction 225
12.2 Antimicrobial agents used in textiles 226
12.3 Evaluation of antimicrobial fabrics 235
12.4 Antimicrobial durability 237
12.5 Health and environmental impacts 239
12.6 Conclusions and future trends 240
References 241
Section Three Applications of antimicrobial textiles 247
13 Antimicrobial textiles for medical environments 249
K. Laird and K. Riley
13.1 Introduction 249
13.2 Textiles used in medical environments 249
13.3 Survival of hospital-acquired infections on textiles 252
13.4 Antimicrobial finishing agents for textiles in medical environments 254
13.5 Laundering and removal of microorganisms in healthcare environments 258
13.6 Conclusions 259
References 259
14 Antimicrobial textiles for sutures, implants, and scaffolds 263
X. Chen, Y. Guan, L. Wang, N.A. Sanbhal, F. Zhao, Q. Zou and Q. Zhang
14.1 Introduction 263
14.2 Surgical site infections (SSIs) 263
14.3 Common antimicrobial treatments of biomaterials 265
14.4 Antimicrobial sutures 269
14.5 Antimicrobial implants 271
14.6 Antimicrobial scaffolds 276
14.7 Conclusion 278
References 278
15 Antimicrobial textiles for treating skin infections and
atopic dermatitis 287
X. Hui, H. Zhu and G. Sun
15.1 Introduction: normal skin barrier and related flora 287
15.2 Disrupted skin barrier and pathogen colonization 287
15.3 Antimicrobial therapy and related textiles 288
15.4 Classification and mechanism of antimicrobial agents 289
15.5 Development of new antimicrobial active textiles for treating AD 291
15.6 Clinical evaluation of efficacy and safety of antimicrobial active textiles 296
15.7 Evaluation of the safety of antimicrobial textiles 297
15.8 Conclusions 298
References 299
16 Antimicrobials for protective clothing 305
G. Thilagavathi and S. Viju
16.1 Introduction 305
16.2 Textiles as carriers of microorganisms 305
16.3 Effect of microbial growth on textiles 306
16.4 Requirements for antimicrobial finishes 308
16.5 Mechanisms of antimicrobial finishes 308
16.6 Antimicrobial textile fabrication methods 309
16.7 Antimicrobial finishing agents 310
References 316
17 Antimicrobial finishes for improving the durability and longevity
of fabric structures 319
G. Sun
17.1 Introduction 319
17.2 Biocides and antimicrobial textiles 321
17.3 Types of antimicrobial textiles 324
17.4 Future trends 332
References 332
Index 337

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