Ecotextile ’98: Sustainable Development | A Richard Horrocks

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Ecotextile ’98: Sustainable Development
Edited by: A Richard Horrocks
Ecotextile ’98: Sustainable Development

CONTENTS
Section 1: WASTE MINIMISATION
 
Waste Minimisation Challenges in the UK Textile Industry
Sandy Muirhead, ETSU, Harwell, UK 3
The Environment and the Law
Victoria Joy, Environmental Consultant, UK 13
Waste Elimination from Textiles
Mike Hewson, BTTG, Didsbury, UK 23
Success with Energy Management
Mike Hewson, BTTG, Didsbury, UK 33
The Requirements for Waste Water Treatment in the Textile Industry
Mike Hewson, BTTG, Didsbury, UK 43
Initial Results from an EU-funded Research Reed Bed
Patrick Gaunt, Reuben Gaunt & Son Ltd., UK 51
Minimisation of Formaldehyde Emissions
Mike Hall, Richard Horrocks and Dawn Roberts, Bolton Institute, Bolton, UK 63
Saving Waste Makes Money
Brian Bruce, BTB Associates, Manchester, UK 71

Section 2: PROCESS OPTIMISATION
Colour Removal from Effluent and Water Re-use in Courtaulds Textiles
Peter Cooper, Courtaulds Textiles, Nottingham, UK
Biochemical Treatment of Recalcitrant Dyestuff Effluent 79
John Binkley, Joanne Hargreaves and Gillian Smart, Bolton Institute, Bolton, UK 87
Decolourisation of Textile Waste Water by Photo-oxidation and Its Re-use
Ayse Uygur, Marmara University, Istanbul, Turkey 97
Decolorisation of Textile Waste-water by Means of Advanced Oxidation Processes
S Ledakowicz, R Maciejewska and J Perkowski, Technical University of Lodz"
Lodz, Poland 105
Novel Applications of Biotechnology in the Textile Industry
Gordon Nelson, BTTG, Didsbury, UK III
Enzymatic Treatment of Man-made Cellulosic Fabrics
Jadwiga Sojka Ledakowicz and Aneta Skaskiewicz, Textile Research Institute, Lodz;
Rita Pyc and Edward Galas, Technical University of Lodz, Poland 121
The Optimisation of Processes and the Re-use of Water in the Dyeing of Cotton
and CottonIPolyester Blends
Jaime I N Rocha Gomes and Carlos J E Lima, University of Minho,
Guimaraes, Portugal 129
Urea Reduction in Reactive Dye Printing
Miroslav Prasil, Technical University of Liberec, Liberec, Czech Republic 137
Distribution of Fibrous Particles Emitted during Simulated Handling of Basalt Weaves
Jiri Militky and Vladimir Bajzik, Technical University of Liberec, Liberec, Czech
Republic 137

Section 3: RECOVERY, RECYCLING & RE-USE
Recycling for Charity'S Sake
Andrew Stockwell, OXF AM, UK 151
Research Areas for Upgrading Textile Recycling
Hans de Groot and Anton Liuken, TNO Institute of Industrial Technology, Delft,
Netherlands 159
An Overview of Activities on Recycling of Fibrous Textile and Carpet Wastes at the
Georgia Institute of Technology
Youjiang Wang, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, USA 165
Carpet Waste, an Expensive Luxury
Mohsen Miraftab and Richard Horrocks, Bolton Institute and Colin Woods,
Environmental Management Consultants, Manchester, UK 173
Polymer Recycling in Technical Textiles
Philip Davies and Mohsen Miraftab, Bolton Institute, Bolton, UK 183
Use of Enzymes in Textile Processing and Recycling Potential- Indigo Backstaining
during Cellulase Washing
Artur Cavaco-Paulo and Rui Campos, University of Minho; and Jose Morgado,
CITEVE, Portugal 191

Section 4: NEW PRODUCTS AND PROCESSES
Oeko-Tex Labelling of Textiles
Erich Zippel, Austrian Textile Institute, Vienna, Austria 197
Environmentally-Conscious Textile Design: Towards a New Approach
Jo Heeley, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, UK
Concurrent Product Development and Design for Environment in the UK Textile
and Clothing Industry
Tracey Bhamra, Jo Heeley and David Tyler, Manchester Metropolitan University,
203
Manchester, UK 211
Innovative Knitted Structures from Waste Materials
Hilmar Fuchs, Rolf Arnold, Monilm Seeger, Anna-Maria Bartl and Evelin
Hufnagl, Sachsisches Textile Forschungs Institute, Chemnitz, Germany 219
Novel Vegetable Fibre Geotextile Structures for Soil Reinforcement
Martin Pritchard, Subhash Anand and Robert Sarsby, Bolton Institute,
Bolton, UK 225
The Potential for Hemp: Locally Produced Organic Textiles
Sue Riddlestone, The Ecology Centre, Carshalton, UK 237
Where Now With FR (Flame Retardancy)?
Peter Wragg, Schill and Seilacher, UK 247

Section 5: ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS
Life Cycle Analysis: An Aid to Environmental Management as Applied to PET
(Polyethylene Terephthalate) Containers
Vince Matthews, PETCORE (PET Container Recycling Europe), Brussels, Belgium 259
Towards Environmentally Responsible Design in Textiles
Kate Fletcher, Chelsea College of Art and DeSign, London, UK. 271
Impact of Commercial and Environmental Pressures on Dye Use
Brian Burdett, BTTG, Didsbury, UK 279
Dyes and Microbes: Colouration or Decolouration?
David Wales and Debra Hobson, BTTG, Didsbury, Nicola Willmot, Courtaulds
Fibres, Spondon, UK 289
Environmental Consequences of Using Flame Retardant Textiles
- A Simple Life Cycle Model
Richard Horrocks, Mike Hall and Dawn Roberts, Bolton Institute, Bolton, UK 297
The Impact of Environmental Issues on Textile Education
Theresa Squires, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, UK 305

PREFACE
The papers in this edited text comprise those presented at the recent international conference ECOTEXTJLE'98, which was organised jointly by Bolton Institute and the British Textile Technology Group and took place on 7 & 8th Ap~ 1998 at The Bolton Moat House, Bolton, UK.

The conference received sponsorship and support from Dorma (CV Home Furnishings Ltd.,), Terram Ltd., Courtaulds Textiles, TNO (Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research), EMPA (European Manufacturers Association) and the (UK) Government Office North West.

The theme of the conference was Sustainable Development and followed on naturally from the earlier conference ECOTEXTJLE'95 - Wealth From Waste In Textiles, which was published in 1996 by Woodhead Publishing Ltd as "Recycling Textile and Plastic Waste". This theme follows the realisation in the late 1990s that environmental awareness and practice by industry and commerce lead to financial savings if properly managed. Furthermore, if textile manufacturing processes and products are to be ''fully green", then it is essential that both financial and environmental sustainability are achieved. This means that the simple "end-of-pipe" solutions considered and implemented during this last decade of the twentieth century will not be acceptable for the twenty-first century. Both consumer pressures and legislation will force manufacturing industries to become environmentally sustainable, whether they are sited in Europe and the USA or are elsewhere and export into these areas.

The proceedings comprise thirty-six papers, which are divided into the five areas:

  • Waste Minimisation
  • Process Optimisation
  • Recovery, Recycling and Re-use
  • New Products and Processes
  • Environmental Impact Analysis
And provide sufficient coverage of each for the reader to grasp and understand the current main issues as well as pointing towards future solutions. It is hoped that the content and balance of papers, which include overViews, personal opinion and original research, will go some way to increasing our knowledge of achieving :full environmental sustainability of the textile and related industrial sectors.

Richard Horrocks


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