Sustainability in Denim Edited by Subramanian Muthu

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Sustainability in Denim
Edited by Subramanian Senthilkannan Muthu
Sustainability in Denim

Contents
List of contributors xi
Preface xiii

1 Introduction to denim 1
S.G. Annapoorani
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 What is denim? 3
1.3 History of denim 6
1.4 Jeans, the cultural icon 9
1.5 Denim: manufacture 11
1.6 Chemistry of denim 16
1.7 Market for denim and today’s status 18
1.8 Sustainable perspectives on environmental, social, and economic aspects of denim 20
1.9 Challenges and opportunities for the worldwide denim market 20
1.10 Sustainable denim 21
1.11 Future trends 23
1.12 Conclusion 24
Further reading 25

2 Environmental impacts of denim 27
K. Amutha
2.1 Introduction 27
2.2 Denim industry 28
2.3 Key sustainability issues of denim industry 29
2.4 Environmental impacts of denim processing 37
2.5 Sustainable denim production 42
2.6 Future trends 45
2.7 Conclusion 46
Sources of further information and advice 46
References 47
Further reading 47 

3 Environmental impacts of denim washing 49
A.K.R. Choudhury
3.1 Introduction 49
3.2 Denim dyeing 51
3.3 Selection of denim fabric 54
3.4 Denim washing 55
3.5 Desizing 56
3.6 Garment washing 56
3.7 Types of garment washing 57
3.8 Denim finishing 72
3.9 Impact on environment 74
3.10 Future trends 79
References 80

4 Life-cycle assessment of denim 83
A.P. Periyasamy, J. Wiener and J. Militky
4.1 Introduction 83
4.2 Product life cycle 84
4.3 Life-cycle assessment 89
4.4 Life-cycle assessment of denim 91
4.5 Life-cycle assessment results 96
4.6 Interpretation and conclusion of results 105
4.7 Future trends 106
Acknowledgements 106
References 107 

5 Water footprint of denim industry 111
H. Pal, K.N. Chatterjee and D. Sharma
5.1 Introduction 111
5.2 Water consumption with denim 111
5.3 Concept of water footprint 112
5.4 Standards and measurement 114
5.5 Water footprint studies of denim 116
5.6 Trends in denim industry 117
5.7 Challenges 120
5.8 Conclusion 121
Sources of further information 121
References 122

6 Carbon footprint in denim manufacturing 125
T. Karthik and R. Murugan
6.1 Introduction 125
6.2 Carbon footprint standards and methods of calculation 127
6.3 Carbon footprint in textile and clothing sector 128
6.4 Denim 129
6.5 Carbon footprint and its estimation 134
6.6 Carbon footprint in each stages of denim manufacturing 135
6.7 Strategies to reduce carbon footprint in denim manufacturing 150
6.8 Conclusion 155
References 156
Further reading 159

7 Denim processing and health hazards 161
A.P. Periyasamy and J. Militky
7.1 Introduction 161
7.2 Environmental aspects of denim processing 161
7.3 Health hazards of denim processing 167
7.4 Overall working conditions 185
7.5 Case studies 188
7.6 Challenges, future trends and conclusions 190
Abbreviations 191
Acknowledgement 191
References 192

8 Chemicals and effluent treatment in denim processing 197
R. Rathinamoorthy and T. Karthik
8.1 Introduction 197
8.2 Denim processing stages 198
8.3 Warp dyeing machines for denim manufacture 199
8.4 Chemicals used in denim processing 202
8.5 Common effluent treatment methods 202
8.6 General pollution assessment methods 206
8.7 Effluent analysis in a denim processing industry 207
8.8 Effluent treatment process 218
8.9 Suggestions to reduce effluent pollution 222
8.10 Developments in effluent treatment methods 224
8.11 Summary 226
References 226
Appendix 228

9 Chemicals and effluent treatment in indigo denim processes 235
V. Buscio and C. Gutiérrez-Bouzán
9.1 Introduction 235
9.2 Chemicals in indigo dyeing process 236
9.3 Treatments of indigo effluents 239
9.4 Case study: treatment of indigo effluents by ultrafiltration membranes and reuse of dye 243
9.5 Future trends 249
9.6 Conclusions 250
Sources of further information and advice 250
References 250

10 Denim and consumers’ phase of life cycle 257
A.P. Periyasamy and J. Militky
10.1 Introduction 257
10.2 The global consumption and market potential of denim 258
10.3 Consumer phase for denim 262
10.4 What is a life-cycle assessment? 266
10.5 Consumer phase life-cycle assessment of denim 267
10.6 Effect of home laundering 269
10.7 Effect of washing with cold and warm water 273
10.8 Effect of drying techniques 275
10.9 Recycling and landfill 277
10.10 Interpretation results of consumer phase 278
10.11 Challenges 279
10.12 Future trends 280
Acknowledgements 280
References 280

11 Social aspects in denim production 283
I. Braga and M.J. Abreu
11.1 Introduction 283
11.2 Global perspectives on social aspects of informal production 284
11.3 Denim in Brazilian popular fashion 287
11.4 The denim market: informal trade in northeastern Brazil 293
11.5 Aspects of denim production in Agreste, Pernambuco 298
11.6 Domestic denim production: employment and sustainability of the families in the countryside 301
11.7 Conclusion 314
References 315

12 Environmentally friendly denim processing using water-free technologies 319
K.K. Samanta, S. Basak and S.K. Chattopadhyay
12.1 Introduction 319
12.2 Sustainable textile processing 321
12.3 Denim fabric 324
12.4 Water-based denim processing 326
12.5 Sustainable denim processing using water-free technologies 330
12.6 Some important finishing of denim fabrics 341
12.7 Conclusion 344
References 345
Index 349

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