Advances in Filament Yarn Spinning of Textiles and Polymers Edited by Dong Zhang

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Advances in Filament Yarn Spinning of Textiles and Polymers 
Edited by Dong Zhang
Advances in Filament Yarn Spinning of Textiles and Polymers

Contents
Contributor contact details ix
Woodhead Publishing Series in Textiles xi
Introduction xvii

Part I General issues 1
1 Synthetic polymer fibers and their processing
requirements 3
G. Bhat and V. Kandagor, The University of Tennessee, USA
1.1 Introduction 3
1.2 Chemistry of fi ber-forming polymers 6
1.3 Polymerization processes 14
1.4 Infl uence of chemical structure on the physical properties of chemicals and fi bers 17
1.5 Effects of molecular weight on fiber spinnability, structure and properties 18
1.6 Flow properties of polymers 19
1.7 Principles of solidification during fiber formation 21
1.8 Fiber formation techniques 22
1.9 Post-fiber formation treatments 26
1.10 Current trends 26
1.11 Conclusion 26
1.12 References 27
2 Understanding the behaviour of synthetic polymer fibres during spinning 31
E. Devaux, Ecole Nationale Sup e rieure des Arts et Industries Textiles (ENSAIT), and Centre Europ e en des Textiles Innovants (CETI), France
2.1 Introduction 31
2.2 Molten state rheology of thermoplastic polymers 32
2.3 Polymer behaviour during cooling and resulting fi bre structure 35
2.4 Polymer behaviour during fi lament spinning 39
2.5 The die swell phenomenon 41
2.6 Drawing of polymers: changes in morphology and properties of fi laments 44
2.7 References 45
3 Technologies for the manufacture of synthetic polymer fibers 48
J. Hagewood, J Hagewood LLC, USA
3.1 Introduction 48
3.2 Textile filament and bulk continuous fi ber (BCF) spinning 50
3.3 Staple fiber spinning 52
3.4 Industrial fiber spinning equipment 54
3.5 Monofi lament fiber equipment 55
3.6 Bicomponent fiber equipment 58
3.7 Spunbond lines 61
3.8 Melt blown processes 65
3.9 Solvent spinning lines 66
3.10 Hollow fiber membranes 67
3.11 Gel spinning 69
3.12 Nano-fiber spinning 69
3.13 Conclusion 70
3.14 References 70

Part II Spinning techniques 73
4 Melt spinning of synthetic polymeric fi laments 75
A. Rawal and S. Mukhopadhyay, Indian Institute of
Technology Delhi, India
4.1 Introduction 75
4.2 Fundamentals of melt spinning 76
4.3 Modeling of polymer fl ows in melt spinning 79
4.4 Filament interaction with the environment in melt spinning 84
4.5 Limitations of melt spinning 88
4.6 Developments in melt spinning 88
4.7 Future trends 95
4.8 Conclusion 95
4.9 Sources of further information and advice 96
4.10 References 96
5 Gel spinning of synthetic polymer fi bers 100
C. J. Kuo and W. L. Lan, National Taiwan University of
Science and Technology, Taiwan
5.1 Introduction 100
5.2 Factors affecting the spinning of polymers: entanglement 101
5.3 Factors affecting fi bre strength 102
5.4 Gel spinning technologies 103
5.5 Types of fi bres produced using gel spinning 105
5.6 Factors affecting gel spinning 106
5.7 Gel spun textile products 109
5.8 Conclusion and future trends 110
5.9 References 112
6 Bi-component and bi-constituent spinning of synthetic
polymer fibres 113
S. Mukhopadhyay, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi,
India
6.1 Introduction 113
6.2 Classifi cation of bi-component fi bres 114
6.3 Spinning technologies 116
6.4 Factors affecting bi-component and bi-constituent spinning 120
6.5 Applications of bi-component fi bres 124
6.6 Future trends 126
6.7 References 126
7 Electrospinning, processing and characterization of polymer-based nano-composite fi bers 128
Q. Q. Ni, X. D. Jin, H. Xia and F. Liu, Shinshu University,
Japan
7.1 Introduction 128
7.2 Principles of electrospinning 129
7.3 Electrospinning technology 130
7.4 Electrospinning of nanofibers 132
7.5 Properties of electrospun nanofibers 134
7.6 Conclusion 145
7.7 References 145
8 Integrated composite spinning (ICS) 149
W. Oxenham, North Carolina State University, USA
8.1 Introduction 149
8.2 The background and history of integrated composite spinning (ICS) 150
8.3 The development of ICS technology 153
8.4 The impact of material selection and processing parameters
on ICS yarn properties 160
8.5 Commercialization of the process 166
8.6 Assessing the advantages and disadvantages of ICS
technology 168
8.7 Future trends 169
8.8 Conclusion 170
8.9 References 171
9 Wet spinning of synthetic polymer fibers 174
B. Ozipek and H. Karakas, Istanbul Technical University,
Turkey
9.1 Introduction 174
9.2 Principles of wet spinning 174
9.3 Types of fibers used 177
9.4 Fiber properties 182
9.5 Factors affecting wet spinning 183
9.6 Applications and future trends 184
9.7 References 185
10 Dry spinning of synthetic polymer fi bers 187
Y. Imura, New Jersey Institute of Technology, USA,
R. M. C. Hogan, Omni Tech International, USA and
M. Jaffe, New Jersey Institute of Technology, USA
10.1 Introduction 187
10.2 The dry spinning process 189
10.3 Characteristics of dry spun fibers 190
10.4 Variables in dry spinning 191
10.5 Dry spinning of acrylic fibres 193
10.6 Dry spinning of cellulose acetate and triacetate 196
10.7 Dry spinning of other fibers: polybenzimidazole (PBI), spandex and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) 199
10.8 Conclusion and future trends 201
10.9 References 201
Index 203


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