Anthropometry, Apparel Sizing and Design Edited by Deepti Gupta and Norsaadah Zakaria

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Anthropometry, Apparel Sizing and Design
Edited by Deepti Gupta and Norsaadah Zakaria
Anthropometry, Apparel Sizing and Design

Contents
Contributor contact details xi
Woodhead Publishing Series in Textiles xv
Preface xxiii 

Part I Anthropometric methods 1
1 Apparel sizing: existing sizing systems and the
development of new sizing systems 3
N. Z AKARIA , Universiti Teknologi Mara, Malaysia and D. G UPTA ,
Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, India
1.1 Introduction 3
1.2 Existing sizing systems: strengths and weaknesses 4
1.3 Sizing system development: Stage 1 – Anthropometric analysis 15
1.4 Sizing system development: Stage 2 – Sizing analysis 22
1.5 Sizing system development: Stage 3 – Developing and validating a sizing system 26
1.6 Future trends 29
1.7 Sources of further information and advice 31
1.8 References 31
2 Anthropometry and the design and production of apparel: an overview 34
D. G UPTA , Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, India
2.1 Introduction 34
2.2 Ergonomics and design of clothing 36
2.3 Anthropometry 38
2.4 Selection of anthropometric data for clothing design 46
2.5 Errors and variability in anthropometric data 51
2.6 Selection of anthropometric design approach 54
2.7 Anthropometry and clothing production 56
2.8 Testing the fi t of clothing 59
2.9 Conclusions 61
2.10 Future trends 62
2.11 Sources of further information and advice 62
2.12 References 63
3 Anthropometric methods for apparel design: body measurement devices and techniques 67
M. K OUCHI , National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science
and Technology, Japan
3.1 Introduction 67
3.2 Traditional anthropometric methods 68
3.3 Three- dimensional anthropometry 73
3.4 International standards related to anthropometric methods 82
3.5 Landmarking 85
3.6 Future trends 91
3.7 Sources of further information and advice 92
3.8 References 93
4 Body shape analysis and identifi cation of key dimensions for apparel sizing systems 95
N. Z AKARIA , Universiti Teknologi Mara, Malaysia
4.1 Introduction 95
4.2 Key dimensions and control dimensions 96
4.3 Sizing systems and identifi cation of key dimensions 97
4.4 Body dimensions profi le 99
4.5 Correlation coeffi cient 100
4.6 Multivariate data examination 104
4.7 Future trends 115
4.8 Sources of further information and advice 116
4.9 References 117

Part II Analysing anthropometric data to develop sizing systems 121
5 Segmentation and classifi cation of anthropometric data for the apparel industry 123
E. P AQUET , National Research Council, Canada and H. L. V IKTOR ,
University of Ottawa, Canada
5.1 Introduction 123
5.2 Description and classifi cation of human body shapes using extrinsic approaches 125
5.3 Description and classifi cation of human body shapes using intrinsic approaches 129
5.4 Body spaces, multidimensional scaling, dimensionality reduction and segmentation 135
5.5 Conclusions 138
5.6 References 139
6 National size and shape surveys for apparel design 141
J. B OUGOURD , Consultant, UK and P. T RELEAVEN , University
College London, UK
6.1 Introduction 141
6.2 A global context 142
6.3 Importance and signifi cance of national size and shape surveys 144
6.4 Planning a national anthropometric survey of clothing 149
6.5 Refl ection 162
6.6 Future trends 163
6.7 Sources of further information and advice 164
6.8 Acknowledgements 164
6.9 References 164
7 The development of apparel sizing systems from anthropometric data 167
A. C. K. C HAN , The Hong Kong Polytechnic University,
Hong Kong SAR
7.1 Introduction 167
7.2 Importance of anthropometric data for the development of a sizing system 168
7.3 Statistics used in sizing system development 169
7.4 Key or control measurements 175
7.5 Establishment of a sizing system 177
7.6 Standard size system of body measurements 178
7.7 Development of a size roll/system for selected clothing 188
7.8 Fit testing and sizing evaluation 191
7.9 Conclusion 195
7.10 References 195
8 Developing apparel sizing systems for particular groups 197
Y.-S. L EE , Chonnam National University, South Korea
8.1 Introduction 197
8.2 Sizing systems for Korean military uniforms 199
8.3 Analysis of body proportions of Korean women 212
8.4 Human- centred product design for elderly women 229
8.5 Korean Standard (KS) sizing systems for women’s garments 235
8.6 Compatibility of sizing systems 243
8.7 Conclusions 250
8.8 Future trends 252
8.9 References 252
9 Apparel size designation and labelling 255
M.-E. F AUST , Philadelphia University, USA and Université du
Québec à Montréal (UQÀM), Canada
9.1 Introduction 255
9.2 The importance of size designations 256
9.3 The key elements for an international size designation 263
9.4 Designing international size designations and methods of implementation 269
9.5 References 271
10 International apparel sizing systems and standardization of apparel sizes 274
J. C HUN , Yonsei University, South Korea
10.1 Introduction: the role of international sizing systems 274
10.2 Body types in global garment sizing systems 275
10.3 Key dimensions and classifi cation of garment types 289
10.4 Range of body measurements 292
10.5 Garment sizing systems for children 296
10.6 Future trends 301
10.7 Sources of further information and advice 301
10.8 References 302
11 Computer design and digital fi t of clothing 305
Y. A. L EE , Iowa State University, USA
11.1 Introduction: the role of computer technology in clothing design 305
11.2 Using sizing systems in clothing design simulation 306
11.3 Analysis of apparel fi t preferences using 3D body scan data 307
11.4 Ensuring good fi t in the design of new clothing 308
11.5 Application of virtual simulation in product design 309
11.6 Future trends 311
11.7 Sources of further information and advice 315
11.8 References 318
12 Wearing comfort using body motion analysis 320
J. G ERŠAK , University of Maribor, Slovenia
12.1 Introduction 320
12.2 Variation in body shape during motion 320
12.3 The interaction between body motion and clothing as a shell 323
12.4 Fit and allowance for comfort and wearability 327
12.5 Conclusion and future trends 331
12.6 References 332
Index 334

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