Designing Apparel for Consumers: The Impact of Body Shape and Size

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Designing Apparel for Consumers: The Impact of Body Shape and Size
Edited by Marie-Eve Faust and Serge Carrier
Designing Apparel for Consumers: The Impact of Body Shape and Size

Contents
Contributor contact details xi
Woodhead Publishing Series in Textiles xv

Part I Identifying shape, size, body volume and psychological aspects of designing apparel 1
1 Body shape and its influence on apparel size and consumer choices 3
E. A. Gribbin, Alvanon Inc., USA
1.1 Introduction 3
1.2 Background to sizing 4
1.3 Body shape research 7
1.4 Applying the data 10
1.5 The reality of retail 12
1.6 The consumer experience 13
1.7 Future trends 14
1.8 Conclusion 16
2 Creation of ready-made clothing: the development and future of sizing systems 17
S. P. Ashdown, Cornell University, USA
2.1 Introduction 17
2.2 The relationship of apparel products to the body 18
2.3 The development of sizing systems 20
2.4 Apparel industry methods of creating ready-made garments 22
2.5 Why standard sizing is complicated by body shape variation 24
2.6 An emerging mass customization model for clothing sizing 27
2.7 Conclusion 30
2.8 Future trends 30
2.9 Sources of further information and advice 31
2.10 References 33
3 National sizing surveys: techniques, data analysis and apparel product development 35
K. M. King, [TC] 2 (Textile/Clothing Technology Corporation),
USA
3.1 Introduction 35
3.2 Survey design 38
3.3 Data collection 43
3.4 Data analysis 45
3.5 Applications for apparel 49
3.6 Other applications 55
3.7 Conclusion 56
3.8 References 57
4 Body shape and weight distribution: the Body Volume
Index (BVI) and the Body Mass Index (BMI) 58
R. Barnes, Select Research Ltd, England
4.1 Introduction 58
4.2 The Body Mass Index (BMI) and the development of the
Body Volume Index (BVI) 60
4.3 Research on the use of the BVI 68
4.4 Assessing the value of the BVI 70
4.5 Conclusion 72
4.6 Sources of further information and advice 76
4.7 References 76
5 Psychological and sociological factors infl uencing consumers’ choice of apparel 78
M. Julien, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Canada
5.1 Introduction 78
5.2 The need to look young 79
5.3 The need to look marginal and rebellious 80
5.4 The need to be authentic 81
5.5 The need to constantly change appearances 82
5.6 The need to expose the body 83
5.7 The need to look attractive 84
5.8 The need to attract attention 86
5.9 The need to look sporty 87
5.10 The need to be ethical 88
5.11 Conclusion 89
5.12 References 90

Part II Understanding sizing and shapes requirements and choices of particular customer groups 93
6 Infants and children: understanding sizing, body
shapes and apparel requirements for infants
and children 95
N. Zakaria, Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM), Malaysia
6.1 Introduction 95
6.2 Understanding different body shapes of infants and children 97
6.3 Sizing requirements for particular populations of children 99
6.4 Key dimensions identifi cations 104
6.5 Clustering children’s body shapes and sizes 108
6.6 Classification of children’s body shapes 113
6.7 Sizing system development and designation 118
6.8 Future trends 123
6.9 Sources of further information and advice 124
6.10 References 126
7 Older consumers: understanding sizing, body shapes and requirements of apparel for this niche 132
J. McCann, University of South Wales, Wales, UK
7.1 Introduction 132
7.2 Understanding different body shapes of older consumers 134
7.3 Sizing requirements for the older consumer: the design for ageing well project 138
7.4 Examples of specifi c styles for particular body sizes and shapes amongst older consumers: aesthetic needs 144
7.5 Examples of specifi c styles for particular body sizes and shapes amongst older consumers: needs of the body 147
7.6 Future trends 149
7.7 Sources of further information and advice 150
7.8 References 151
8 Overweight and obese consumers: shape and sizing to design apparel that fi ts this specifi c market 153
L. M. Boorady, SUNY – Buffalo State, USA
8.1 Introduction 153
8.2 Understanding different body shapes of obese consumers 154
8.3 Sizing requirements for obese consumers 159
8.4 Specific styles for the obese consumer 164
8.5 Future trends 166
8.6 Sources of further information and advice 167
8.7 References 167
9 Asian and Caucasian: designing apparel for these two different ethnic groups 169
Y. A. Lee, Iowa State University, USA
9.1 Introduction 169
9.2 Understanding different body shapes: the case of North American college students from Asian and Caucasian ethnic groups 175
9.3 Sizing requirements for different ethnic populations 178
9.4 Examples of specifi c styles for different ethnic populations 183
9.5 Future trends 183
9.6 Sources of further information and advice 186
9.7 References 187
10 Males: understanding sizing requirements for male apparel 189
J. Bellemare, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Canada
10.1 Introduction 189
10.2 Key issues for comparison 190
10.3 Understanding different male body shapes 200
10.4 Sizing requirements for male apparel 207
10.5 Examples of sizing systems for male apparel 211
10.6 Future trends 214
10.7 Sources of further information and advice 218
10.8 References 219
11 Male and female consumers: segmenting consumers in the apparel market by body shape and other factors 221
P. Robinet, IFTH, France and S. Carrier, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Canada
11.1 Introduction 221
11.2 Techniques to cluster body shapes 221
11.3 Body shapes amongst the female French population 224
11.4 Body shapes amongst the male French population 228
11.5 Conclusion 233
11.6 References 234
12 Pregnant women: understanding pregnant women’s shape, sizing and apparel style preferences 235
M.-E. Faust, Philadelphia University, USA
12.1 Introduction 235
12.2 Identifying target markets 236
12.3 Key stages in pregnancy 238
12.4 Pregnancy and apparel choice 243
12.5 Maternity wear: a brief history 244
12.6 Meeting the needs of a target market: body measurement and fit satisfaction 245
12.7 Case study: pregnant women in Hong Kong 246
12.8 Conclusion 253
12.9 References 253
13 Plus size Black and Latino women: the implications of body shape and size for apparel design 256
C. J. Patterson, Northwestern University, USA
13.1 Introduction 256
13.2 Plus size models in the fashion world 257
13.3 Causality and reality: body size among Black and Latino women 261
13.4 Plus size clothing designers who hire Black and Latina models 266
13.5 Conclusion and future trends 269
13.6 References 270
14 Intimate apparel: designing intimate apparel to fi t different body shapes 273
K. Shin, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, China
14.1 Introduction 273
14.2 Measuring breast volume 277
14.3 Designing intimate apparel to fi t different body shapes 282
14.4 Smart materials in intimate apparel 284
14.5 Technologies used in intimate apparel 286
14.6 Conclusion 288
14.7 References 288
15 Headwear: designing headwear to fi t the size and shape of Western and Asian populations 292
R. Ball, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, China
15.1 Introduction 292
15.2 Types of headwear 294
15.3 Head physiology 296
15.4 Sizing systems for headgear 298
15.5 Head anthropometrics and design 300
15.6 Head models 303
15.7 Future trends 305
15.8 Sources of further information and advice 306
15.9 References 306
Index 309

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