Garment Manufacturing Technology Edited by Rajkishore Nayak and Rajiv Padhye

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Garment Manufacturing Technology
Edited by Rajkishore Nayak and Rajiv Padhye
Garment Manufacturing Technology

Contents
List of contributors xi
Woodhead Publishing Series in Textiles xiii
1 Introduction: the apparel industry 1
R. Nayak, R. Padhye
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Global scenario of apparel manufacturing 4
1.3 Challenges in apparel production 10
1.4 Role of various organisations 12
1.5 Future trends 13
1.6 Conclusions 15
References 15
Part One Product development, production planning and selection of materials 19
2 Product development in the apparel industry 21
M. Senanayake
2.1 Introduction 21
2.2 Product-development models and product-development process 22
2.3 Variations in apparel product development: demand-led product development 29
2.4 Apparel product-development technologies 32
2.5 Apparel product standards, specifications, quality assurance and product technical package 33
2.6 Apparel product life-cycle management (PLM) and supply-chain relationships 41
2.7 Measures for apparel product development 43
2.8 Future trends in apparel product development 44
2.9 Case studies: PD tools and technologies 49
2.10 Conclusions 55
2.11 Sources of further information and advice 55
References 56
3 Role of fabric properties in the clothing-manufacturing process 59
B.K. Behera
3.1 Introduction 59
3.2 Fabric properties and performance 59
3.3 Garment make-up process and fabric properties 61
3.4 Low-stress mechanical properties and make-up process 63
3.5 Control system 67
3.6 Fabric tailorability, buckling and formability 69
3.7 Sewability 71
3.8 Conclusions 79
References 80
4 Production planning in the apparel industry 81
S. Das, A. Patnaik
4.1 Introduction 81
4.2 Production planning 81
4.3 Production systems 83
4.4 Production planning and control in the apparel industry 88
4.5 Supply chain management in the apparel industry 94
4.6 Inventory management 97
4.7 Manufacturing performance improvement through lean production 99
4.8 Waste management 103
4.9 Human resource management 104
4.10 New tools developed in production planning 105
Acknowledgments 105
References 105
5 Fabric sourcing and selection 109
A. Vijayan, A. Jadhav
5.1 Introduction 109
5.2 Fabric sourcing 110
5.3 Fabric inspection 115
5.4 Future trends 121
5.5 Conclusions 127
References 127
6 Selecting garment accessories, trims, and closures 129
K.N. Chatterjee, Y. Jhanji, T. Grover, N. Bansal, S. Bhattacharyya
6.1 Part 1: introduction to garment accessories 129
6.2 Part 2: selecting garment accessories 129
6.3 Part 3: selecting supporting materials 136
6.4 Part 4: selecting closures 138
6.5 Part 5: accessories for children’s wear 145
6.6 Part 6: evaluation of quality of trims and accessories 148
6.7 Part 7: fashion accessories 150
6.8 Conclusions 183
Acknowledgments 183
Bibliography 183
Part Two Garment design and production 185
7 Garment sizing and fit 187
R. Pandarum, W. Yu
7.1 Introduction 187
7.2 Geometry of the human form 188
7.3 The human figure divided into body proportions 189
7.4 Garment size charts 193
7.5 Development of garment size charts 194
7.6 Sizing and fit systems 197
7.7 Three-dimensional (3D) body scanning – current and potential future applications in clothing manufacture and retailing 200
7.8 Conclusions 201
7.9 Sources of further information 201
Acknowledgements 202
References 202
8 Pattern construction 205
K. Kennedy
8.1 Introduction 205
8.2 Pattern construction modes 206
8.3 Body, material and design 208
8.4 Pattern construction tools 213
8.5 Conclusions 218
8.6 2D and 3D CAD Web sites 219
Acknowledgements 219
References 219
9 Fabric spreading and cutting 221
I. Vilumsone-Nemes
9.1 Introduction 221
9.2 Cut process planning 221
9.3 Spreading of textile materials 223
9.4 Cutting of textile materials 230
9.5 Fusing of cut textile components 240
9.6 Final work operations of the cutting process 242
9.7 Future trends 244
9.8 Conclusions 244
9.9 Sources of further information 245
10 Sewing, stitches and seams 247
G. Colovic
10.1 Introduction 247
10.2 Stitch classes 248
10.3 Seam types 258
10.4 Seam-neatening 269
10.5 Future trends 270
10.6 Conclusions 271
10.7 Sources of further information and advice 272
References 273
11 Sewing equipment and work aids 275
P. Jana
11.1 Introduction 275
11.2 Different bed types in industrial sewing machines 275
11.3 Different feed types in industrial sewing machines 280
11.4 Cyclic sewing machines 289
11.5 Computerised sewing machines 291
11.6 Work aids 295
11.7 Sewing automats 302
11.8 Sewing needles 306
11.9 Sewing threads 310
11.10 Future trends and conclusions 312
11.11 Sources of further information and advice 313
References 314
12 Sewing-room problems and solutions 317
M. Carvalho, H. Carvalho, L.F. Silva, F. Ferreira
12.1 Introduction 317
12.2 Seam pucker and other surface distortions 317
12.3 Sewing defects caused by needles 322
12.4 Material feeding and associated problems 324
12.5 Problems in stitch formation 325
12.6 Thread breakage 328
12.7 Future trends 328
12.8 Conclusions 334
12.9 Sources of further information and advice 334
References 334
13 Alternative fabric-joining technologies 337
E.M. Petrie
13.1 Alternatives to sewing 337
13.2 Adhesive bonding 341
13.3 Conventional thermal welding 356
13.4 Advanced thermal-welding processes 363
13.5 Conclusions 370
References 371
14 Seamless garments 373
N. Nawaz, R. Nayak
14.1 Introduction 373
14.2 Seamless technique 373
14.3 Common seamless products 376
14.4 Raw materials 377
14.5 Seamless knitting machines 377
14.6 Advantages of seamless garments 379
14.7 Disadvantages of seamless garments 380
14.8 Applications of seamless garments 381
14.9 Future developments 382
14.10 Conclusions 382
References 383
Part Three Garment finishing, quality control, care
labelling and costing 385
15 Garment-finishing techniques 387
S. MacA. Fergusson
15.1 Introduction 387
15.2 Garment finishing for functionality 388
15.3 Knitwear finishing 393
15.4 Denim garment finishing 396
15.5 Pressing (factors and equipment) 397
15.6 Future trends 401
15.7 Conclusions 402
References 402
16 Quality control and quality assurance in the apparel industry 405
C.N. Keist
16.1 Introduction 405
16.2 Quality control in the apparel industry 406
16.3 Future trends 423
16.4 Conclusions 424
16.5 Sources of further information and advice 425
References 425
17 Care labelling of clothing 427
R. Nayak, R. Padhye
17.1 Introduction 427
17.2 Requirements of care labelling 427
17.3 Definition of care label 429
17.4 Care labelling systems 431
17.5 Future trends 444
17.6 Conclusions 445
References 446
18 Garment costing 447
A. Singh, K. Nijhar
18.1 Introduction 447
18.2 Costing need 447
18.3 Cost classification 449
18.4 Cost elements 450
18.5 Measures of efficiency 451
18.6 Profitability 452
18.7 Garment sales element analysis 454
18.8 Mark-downs 461
18.9 Managing cost through inventory control 463
18.10 Apparel costing sheet analysis 464
18.11 Conclusions 467
References 467
Index 469

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