Handbook of Technical Textiles - Second Edition (Technical Textile Processes)

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Handbook of Technical Textiles - Second Edition; Volume 1: Technical Textile Processes
Edited by A Richard Horrocks, Subhash C. Anand
Handbook of Technical Textiles

Contents
Contributors xi
Preface xiii
Woodhead Publishing Series in�Textiles xv
1 An overview of the technical textiles sector 1
B.J. McCarthy
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Definition of technical textiles 2
1.3 Emergence and milestones 5
1.4 Textile processes 9
1.5 Applications and end-use sectors 10
1.6 The impact of globalisation 11
1.7 The future 15
References 20
2 Technical fibres: Recent advances 21
M. Miraftab
2.1 Introduction 21
2.2 Nanofibres 22
2.3 Auxetic fibres 25
2.4 Piezoelectric fibres 28
2.5 Photovoltaic fibres 30
2.6 Shape memory fibres 31
2.7 Animal- and plant-based fibres for medical and technical applications 32
2.8 Synthetic- (or chemical-) based fibres for medical and
environmental applications 35
2.9 Degradable and nondegradable synthetics 36
2.10 Conclusion and future prospects 38
Bibliography 38
References 38
3 Technical yarns 43
R.H. Gong, X. Chen
3.1 Introduction 43
3.2 Staple fibre yarns 43
3.3 Filament yarns 56
References 62
4 Technical fabric structures – 1. Woven fabrics 63
K.L. Gandhi, W.S. Sondhelm
4.1 Introduction 63
4.2 Weave structures 64
4.3 Selvedge 76
4.4 Fabric specifications and fabric geometry 79
4.5 Warp preparation 83
References 105
5 Technical fabric structures – 2. Knitted fabrics 107
S.C. Anand
5.1 Terms and definitions 107
5.2 Weft knitting machines 109
5.3 Weft knitted structures 119
5.4 Process control in weft knitting 122
5.5 End-use applications of weft knitted fabrics 125
5.6 Warp knitting machines 127
5.7 Warp knitted structures 132
5.8 Recent advances in warp and weft knitting 144
Acknowledgements 162
References 162
6 Technical fabric structures – 3. Nonwoven fabrics 163
S.J. Russell, P.A. Smith
6.1 Introduction 163
6.2 Carded 165
6.3 Airlaid 169
6.4 Wetlaid 170
6.5 Spunbond 171
6.6 Meltblown 172
6.7 Composite spunmelts 173
6.8 Flash spinning 173
6.9 Electrospun webs 174
6.10 Centrifugally spun webs 175
6.11 Extruded split or fibrillated films 176
6.12 Chemical bonding 176
6.13 Thermal bonding 179
6.14 Solvent bonding 182
6.15 Needlepunching 182
6.16 Stitchbonding 184
6.17 Hydroentanglement 186
Bibliography 188
7 Technical textile finishing 189
R. Conway
7.1 Introduction 189
7.2 Pre-treatment of fabrics for finishing 189
7.3 Mechanical finishing processes 192
7.4 Chemical finishing processes 200
7.5 Finishing for the future 208
References 209
Bibliography 210
8 Coating of textiles 211
R. Conway
8.1 Introduction 211
8.2 History of coating 212
8.3 Coating materials 212
8.4 Coating techniques 213
8.5 Direct coating versus transfer coating 213
8.6 Blade coating 214
8.7 Reverse roll coating 218
8.8 Roller coating 219
8.9 Rotary screen coating 220
8.10 Lick roll coating 221
8.11 Gravure roll coating 221
8.12 Extrusion coating 222
8.13 Powder coating 223
8.14 Spray coating 224
8.15 Foam coating 225
8.16 The future of textile coating 226
References 228
Bibliography 228
9 Coloration of technical textiles 231
I. Holme
9.1 Introduction 231
9.2 Objectives of coloration 232
9.3 Coloration of technical textiles 232
9.4 Dye classes and pigments 239
9.5 Mass coloration of manufactured fibres 250
9.6 Conventional dyeing and printing of technical textiles 254
9.7 Total colour management systems 258
9.8 Dyeing machinery 263
9.9 Printing 268
9.10 Colour fastness of technical textiles 274
9.11 Dyes and pigments for special effects in technical textiles 276
References 277
10.1 Three-dimensional fabric structures. Part 1 – An overview on fabrication of three-dimensional woven textile preforms for composites 285
X. Chen, L.W. Taylor, L.-J. Tsai
10.1 Introduction 285
10.2 Classifications of textile assemblies 286
10.3 3-D solid woven preforms 288
10.4 3-D hollow woven preforms 292
10.5 3-D shell-woven fabrics 294
10.6 3-D nodal woven fabrics 298
10.7 3-D woven architecture from specially made devices 299
10.8 Conclusions 301
References 302
10.2 Three-dimensional fabric structures. Part 2 – Three-dimensional knitted structures for technical textiles applications 305
S.C. Anand
10.9 Introduction 305
10.10 Knitted spacer fabrics 306
10.11 Warp knitted spacer fabrics 306
10.12 Knitting constructions 307
10.13 Fabric properties/product applications 310
10.14 Knitting equipment 311
10.15 Weft knitted spacer fabrics 312
10.16 Knitting constructions 312
10.17 Knitting equipment 314
10.18 Comparison of properties of warp and weft knitted spacer fabrics 314
10.19 Research in spacer structures 317
10.20 Knitting of 3-D spacer piezoelectric fabric 325
10.21 Conclusions 325
Acknowledgements 326
Appendix 326
References 331
10.3 Three-dimensional fabric structures. Part 3 – Three-dimensional nonwoven fabrics and their applications 333
S.C. Anand
10.22 Introduction 333
10.23 Definition 334
10.24 Classification of nonwovens 334
10.25 Fibre trends 334
10.26 Three-dimensional nonwovens 335
10.27 Summary 342
Acknowledgements 343
References 343
11 One-dimensional textiles: rope, cord, twine, webbing, and nets 345
J.W.S. Hearle
11.1 Introduction 345
11.2 Materials 346
11.3 Ropes 348
11.4 Cordage 355
11.5 Webbings, strappings, belts, and tapes 355
11.6 Nets 356
11.7 Cordage properties 357
11.8 Conclusion 359
References 360
Index 361

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