Protective Clothing: Managing Thermal Stress Edited by Faming Wang and Chuansi Gao

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Protective Clothing: Managing Thermal Stress
Edited by Faming Wang and Chuansi Gao
Protective Clothing: Managing Thermal Stress

Contents
Contributor contact details xiii
Woodhead Publishing Series in Textiles xvii
Introduction xxv

Part I Types of protective clothing and their requirements 1
1 Cold-protective clothing: types, design and standards 3
H. Mäkinen and K. Jussila, Finnish Institute of
Occupational Health (FIOH), Finland
1.1 Introduction: types of cold-protective clothing 3
1.2 Human responses to cold 4
1.3 Requirements of cold-protective clothing 8
1.4 Design of clothing to protect wearers from the cold 10
1.5 Examples and applications of cold-protective clothing 19
1.6 Standards and testing for cold-protective clothing 21
1.7 Conclusions: key challenges in managing thermal stress in the cold 30
1.8 Future trends 31
1.9 Source of further information and advice 32
1.10 References 33
2 Cold-water immersion suits 39
D. H. Sweeney and M. J. Taber, Falck Safety Services
Canada Inc., Canada
2.1 Introduction 39
2.2 Maintenance, fi t and sizing of immersion suits 41
2.3 Thermal ratings for immersion suits 43
2.4 Managing thermal protection/stress associated with cold water: the problem of water ingress 45
2.5 Assessing the performance of immersion suits in resisting
water ingress 50
2.6 Protecting airways and hands 53
2.7 Active heating systems for immersion suits 58
2.8 Effect of environmental factors and flotation position on performance of immersion suits 59
2.9 Conclusions and recommendations 62
2.10 References 66
3 Clothing for protection against heat and flames 70
R. Rossi, Empa – Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials
Science and Technology, Switzerland
3.1 Introduction 70
3.2 Types of clothing for protection against heat and flames 71
3.3 The human response to heat 71
3.4 Requirements for heat- and flame-protective clothing 74
3.5 Challenges in managing thermal stress 76
3.6 Design of clothing for protection against heat and flames 78
3.7 Future trends 79
3.8 Conclusions 81
3.9 References 81
4 Clothing for protection against hot-liquid splash and steam hazards 90
G. Song, University of Alberta, Canada, Y. Lu, Soochow
University, People’s Republic of China and F. Gholamreza,
University of Alberta, Canada
4.1 Introduction 90
4.2 Requirements of clothing for protection against hot-liquid splash and steam hazards 91
4.3 Assessment methods and standards 93
4.4 Examples and applications of protective materials 99
4.5 Thermal stored energy and its contribution to burn injury 103
4.6 Conclusions and future trends 106
4.7 References 107
5 Chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) protective clothing 112
R. B. Ormond and R. L. Barker, North Carolina State
University, USA
5.1 Introduction 112
5.2 Types of chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) threats 113
5.3 Personal protective equipment for specific routes of exposure 115
5.4 Respiratory protection 116
5.5 Total body protection 121
5.6 Standard test methods for evaluating chemical-protective materials 128
5.7 Standard test methods for evaluating whole CBRN ensembles 135
5.8 Impact of wearing CBRN protective clothing 140
5.9 Conclusions and future trends 143
5.10 Sources of further information and advice 143
5.11 References 144
6 Ballistic-protective clothing and body armour 146
D. J. Carr, Cranfi eld University, UK and
E. A. Lewis, Ministry of Defence, UK
6.1 Introduction 146
6.2 UK military ballistic-protective clothing 147
6.3 Environmental operating conditions 151
6.4 Test methods 153
6.5 Thermophysiological aspects 160
6.6 Conclusions and future trends 166
6.7 References 166
7 Spacesuits: development and design for thermal comfort 171
V. S. Koscheyev and G. R. Leon, University of
Minnesota, USA
7.1 Introduction 171
7.2 US spacesuit systems 172
7.3 History and evolution of the spacesuit 174
7.4 Challenges related to thermal comfort 179
7.5 Physiological design 179
7.6 Challenges related to glove function 185
7.7 Future trends 187
7.8 Conclusions 188
7.9 References 188
7.10 Appendix: abbreviations 190
8 Medical protective clothing 192
O. Troynikov, N. Nawaz and C. Watson, RMIT
University, Australia
8.1 Introduction 192
8.2 Key requirements for surgical gowns: protection 194
8.3 Key requirements for surgical gowns: thermophysical
comfort 196
8.4 Limitations of current surgical gowns 198
8.5 Performance of surgical gowns: a case study 200
8.6 Measuring the thermal and water vapour resistance
of surgical fabric assemblies 201
8.7 Thermal comfort attributes of various fabric assemblies 209
8.8 Thermal comfort attributes of various surgical ensembles 216
8.9 Conclusions and future trends 220
8.10 References 221

Part II Technologies for warming or cooling in protective clothing 225
9 Phase-change materials (PCMs) for warming or cooling in protective clothing 227
C. Gao, Lund University, Sweden
9.1 Introduction 227
9.2 Principles and types of phase-change materials (PCMs) 228
9.3 Incorporating PCMs into clothing for warming and cooling 231
9.4 Factors determining PCM warming and cooling effects 232
9.5 Applications of PCMs for warming or cooling 236
9.6 Standards and testing 241
9.7 Challenges and future trends 244
9.8 References 246
10 Shape-memory alloys (SMAs) for warming or
cooling in protective clothing 250
E. Kim, Yonsei University, Republic of Korea
10.1 Introduction 250
10.2 Principles of shape-memory alloys (SMAs) 251
10.3 Incorporating SMAs into clothing for warming and cooling 259
10.4 Standards and testing 271
10.5 Conclusions and future trends 275
10.6 Sources of further information and advice 276
10.7 Acknowledgements 276
10.8 References 277
11 Electrically heated clothing (EHC) for protection against cold stress 281
P. Xu, Minjiang University, People’s Republic of China,
F. Wang, Empa – Swiss Federal Laboratories for
Materials Science and Technology, Switzerland and
M. Zhao, Shanghai University of Engineering Science,
People’s Republic of China
11.1 Introduction 281
11.2 Design requirements for electrically heated clothing (EHC) 282
11.3 Heat transfer processes in EHC 284
11.4 Key components in EHC 286
11.5 Performance assessment of EHC 289
11.6 Conclusions and future trends 292
11.7 Sources of further information and advice 293
11.8 References 293
12 Air and water perfusion-based personal cooling systems (PCSs) to protect against heat stress in
protective clothing 296
M. Morrissey and F. Wang, Empa – Swiss Federal
Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology,
Switzerland
12.1 Introduction 296
12.2 Basic requirements of personal cooling systems (PCSs) 297
12.3 Design parameters of PCSs 300
12.4 Assessing the performance of PCSs 306
12.5 Conclusions and future trends 310
12.6 Sources of further information and advice 310
12.7 Acknowledgement 311
12.8 References 311

Part III Understanding and modelling thermal stress in protective clothing 317
13 The human thermoregulatory system and its response to thermal stress 319
G. P. Kenny, University of Ottawa, Canada and
A. D. Flouris, Centre for Research and Technology Hellas, Greece
13.1 Introduction: the physiology of heat balance 319
13.2 Physiological adaptations in response to heat or cold 321
13.3 Heat stress and thermoeffector responses: sweating 324
13.4 Heat stress and thermoeffector responses: cutaneous vasodilation 327
13.5 Thermoregulation during challenges to human heat balance 328
13.6 Nonthermal modulators of thermoeffector responses 337
13.7 The body’s capacity to dissipate heat and its impact on performance 339
13.8 Factors affecting heat-stress response: physical
characteristics/body composition and fi tness 340
13.9 Factors affecting heat stress response: heat acclimation 342
13.10 Factors affecting heat stress response: sex, age and chronic disease 343
13.11 Factors affecting heat stress response: hydration 346
13.12 Factors affecting heat stress response: cardiovascular function 347
13.13 Conclusion 349
13.14 References 349
14 Modelling of cold stress and cold strain in protective clothing 366
F. Wang, University of Alberta, Canada
14.1 Introduction 366
14.2 Cold-related injuries 367
14.3 Assessment of cold stress 371
14.4 Modelling of cold strain 378
14.5 Work practices for cold workplaces 380
14.6 Conclusions 384
14.7 Sources of further information and advice 385
14.8 Acknowledgements 385
14.9 References 385
15 Cold-exposure survival and modeling offshore antiexposure garments 392
E. H. Wissler, The University of Texas at Austin, USA
15.1 Introduction 392
15.2 Hypothermia without immersion 396
15.3 Medical consequences of hypothermia during immersion in cold water 397
15.4 Expected survival time for accidental immersion 399
15.5 Certifi cation of antiexposure suits 400
15.6 Human thermal models applied to testing of antiexposure suits 401
15.7 Validation of a human thermal model for antiexposure suit testing 404
15.8 Results from modeling and experimental studies 408
15.9 Interpretation of the CORD data 409
15.10 Summary 412
15.11 References 413
16 Modeling heat stress and heat strain in protective clothing 416
P. Bishop, K. Crew and J. Wingo, University of
Alabama, USA and A. Nawaiseh, Hashemite
University, Jordan
16.1 Introduction 416
16.2 The body’s microenvironment and thermal stress 417
16.3 Effects of protective clothing and work conditions 421
16.4 Modeling heat stress in protective clothing 423
16.5 Future trends 428
16.6 Sources of further information and advice 430
16.7 References 431
17 Modeling thermal skin burning in protective clothing 435
A. Ghazy, Helwan University, Egypt
17.1 Introduction 435
17.2 Skin: function and structure 436
17.3 Skin burns 437
17.4 Heat transfer in the skin 438
17.5 Modeling skin burns 441
17.6 Skin burns in protective clothing 443
17.7 Future trends 449
17.8 Conclusions 449
17.9 References 450
Index 455

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Anonymous
July 26, 2019 at 9:03 AM delete

Can not read this book. plz help.

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