Smart Fibres, Fabrics and Clothing Edited by Xiaoming Tao

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Smart Fibres, Fabrics and Clothing
Edited by Xiaoming Tao
Smart Fibres, Fabrics and Clothing

Contents
Foreword xi
List of contributors xiii
Acknowledgements xvii
1 Smart technology for textiles and clothing – introduction and overview 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Development of smart technology for textiles and clothing 3
1.3 Outline of the book 5
2 Electrically active polymer materials – application of non-ionic polymer gel and elastomers for artificial muscles 7
2.1 Introduction 7
2.2 Polymer materials as actuators or artificial muscle 9
2.3 Peculiarity of polymer gel actuator 10
2.4 Triggers for actuating polymer gels 10
2.5 Electro-active polymer gels as artificial muscles 15
2.6 From electro-active polymer gel to electro-active elastomer with large deformation 28
2.7 Conclusions 30
Acknowledgements 30
References 30
3 Heat-storage and thermo-regulated textiles and clothing 34
3.1 Development introduction 34
3.2 Basics of heat-storage materials 35
3.3 Manufacture of heat-storage and thermo-regulated textiles and clothing 41
3.4 Properties of heat-storage and thermo-regulated textiles and clothing 47
3.5 Application 52
3.6 Development trends 54
References 55
4Thermally sensitive materials 58
4.1 Introduction 58
4.2 Thermal storage and thermal insulating fibres 60
4.3 Thermal insulation through polymeric coatings 68
4.4 Designing of fabric assemblies 75
References 79
5 Cross-linked polyol fibrous substrates as multifunctional and multi-use intelligent materials 83
5.1 Introduction 83
5.2 Fibrous intelligent materials 83
5.3 Experimental 85
5.4 Results and discussion 86
5.5 Conclusions 91
References 92
6 Stimuli-responsive interpenetrating polymer network hydrogels composed of poly(vinyl alcohol) and poly(acrylic acid) 93
6.1 Introduction 93
6.2 Experimental 95
6.3 Results and discussion 97
6.4 Conclusions 106
References 107
7 Permeation control through stimuli-responsive polymer membrane prepared by plasma and radiation grafting techniques 109
7.1 Introduction 109
7.2 Experimental 110
7.3 Results and discussion 112
7.4 Conclusions 121
Acknowledgement 122
References 122
8 Mechanical properties of fibre Bragg gratings 124
8.1 Introduction 124
8.2 Fabrication techniques 125
8.3 Mechanisms of FBG sensor fabrication 127
8.4 Mechanical properties 130
8.5 Influence of the UV irradiation on mechanical properties 133
8.6 Polymeric fibre 141
8.7 Conclusions 145
Acknowledgements 145
References 145
9 Optical responses of FBG sensors under deformations 150
9.1 Introduction 150
9.2 Optical methodology for FBG sensors 151
9.3 Optical responses under tension 156
9.4 Optical responses under torsion 158
9.5 Optical responses under lateral compression 161
9.6 Optical responses under bending 165
9.7 Conclusions 166
Acknowledgements 167
References 167
10 Smart textile composites integrated with fibre optic sensors 174
10.1 Introduction 174
10.2 Optical fibres and fibre optic sensors 175
10.3 Principal analysis of embedded fibre Bragg grating sensors 177
10.4 Simultaneous measurements of strain and temperature 181
10.5 Measurement effectiveness 187
10.6 Reliability of FBGs 191
10.7 Error of strain measurement due to deviation of position and direction 192
10.8 Distributed measurement systems 195
10.9 Conclusions 195
Acknowledgements 197
References 197
11 Hollow fibre membranes for gas separation 200
11.1 Historical overview of membranes for gas separation 200
11.2 Development of membranes for industrial gas separation 202
11.3 Theories of permeation processes 211
11.4 Phase inversion and hollow fibre membrane formation 211
11.5 Future hollow fibre membranes and industrial gas separation 214
References 215
12 Embroidery and smart textiles 218
12.1 Introduction 218
12.2 Basics of embroidery technology 218
12.3 Embroidery for technical applications — tailored fibre placement 220
12.4 Embroidery technology used for medical textiles 221
12.5 Embroidered stamp — gag or innovation? 224
12.6 Summary 225
References 225
13 Adaptive and responsive textile structures (ARTS) 226
13.1 Introduction 226
13.2 Textiles in computing: the symbiotic relationship 226
13.3 The Georgia Tech Wearable Motherboard__ 228
13.4 GTWM: contributions and potential applications 236
13.5 Emergence of a new paradigm: harnessing the opportunity 240
13.6 Conclusion 244
Acknowledgements 245
References 245
14Wearable technology for snow clothing 246
14.1 Introduction 246
14.2 Key issues and performance requirements 247
14.3 The prototype 248
14.4 Conclusions 252
15 Bioprocessing for smart textiles and clothing 254
15.1 Introduction 254
15.2 Treatment of wool with enzymes 256
15.3 Treatment of cotton with enzymes 263
15.4 Enzymatic modification of synthetic fibres 270
15.5 Spider silk 270
15.6 ‘Intelligent’ fibres 271
15.7 Conclusions 271
Acknowledgements 272
References 272
16 Tailor-made intelligent polymers for biomedical applications 278
16.1 Introduction 278
16.2 Fundamental aspects of shape memory materials 280
16.3 Concept of biodegradable shape memory polymers 281
16.4 Degradable thermoplastic elastomers having shape memory properties 284
16.5 Degradable polymer networks having shape memory properties 287
16.6 Conclusion and outlook 288
Acknowledgements 288
References 288
17 Textile scaffolds in tissue engineering 291
17.1 Introduction 291
17.2 Ideal scaffold system 295
17.3 Scaffold materials 296
17.4 Textile scaffolds 298
17.5 Conclusions 306
Acknowledgements 306
References 306
Index 315

Acknowledgements
The Editor wishes to thank the Hong Kong Polytechnic University for partial support under the Area of Strategic Development Fund and Dr Dongxiao Yang for assistance in compiling this book. The Editor also thanks all contributing authors for their efforts in making this book a reality.


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