Sustainable Apparel: Production, Processing and Recycling

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Sustainable Apparel: Production, Processing and Recycling
Edited by Richard Blackburn
Sustainable Apparel: Production, Processing and Recycling
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Contents
List of contributors ix
Woodhead Publishing Series in Textiles xi 

Part One Sustainable Finishing and Dyeing Processes
for Textiles 1
1 Environmentally friendly fabric finishes 3
D. De Smet, D. Weydts, M. Vanneste
1.1 Introduction 3
1.2 Waste minimization in fabric finishing 3
1.3 Chemical substitution 3
1.4 Reusable binders 13
1.5 Water-free and high solid finishing formulations 14
1.6 Use of biobased and/or biodegradable finishes 15
1.7 Regulations 24
1.8 Future trends 29
1.9 Conclusion 29
Acknowledgments 30
Sources of further information and advice 30
References 30
2 Processes for reducing the environmental impact of fabric finishing 35
D. Weydts, D. De Smet, M. Vanneste
2.1 Introduction 35
2.2 Waste minimization in fabric finishing 35
2.3 Wastewater treatment and management 38
2.4 Regulations 44
2.5 Future trends 45
2.6 Conclusion 45
Acknowledgments 45
Sources of further information and advice 45
References 46
3 Plasma treatments for sustainable textile processing 49
C.-W. Kan
3.1 Introduction 49
3.2 Plasma treatments used in textile processing 52
3.3 Sustainability of plasma treatments 104
3.4 Future trends 107
3.5 Conclusion 108
Sources of further information and advice 108
Acknowledgments 108
References 109
4 Enzymatic treatments for sustainable textile processing 119
J. Shen, E. Smith
4.1 Introduction 119
4.2 Enzymes used in textile processing 119
4.3 Industrial textile bioprocessing 121
4.4 Advanced research in the enzymatic treatment of textile materials 124
4.5 Application of enzymes in textile surface design 127
4.6 Future trends 131
Acknowledgments 131
References 131
5 Sustainable dyeing technologies 135
A. Khatri
5.1 Introduction 135
5.2 Apparel fibers and dyeing 136
5.3 Preparation processes 137
5.4 Dye classes and dyeing process fundamentals 139
5.5 Dyeing processes for apparel fabrics 142
5.6 Dyeing technology, machinery, and sustainability 144
5.7 Effluent treatment and recycling 150
5.8 Future trends in dyeing 153
5.9 Conclusion 155
Sources of further information 156
References 157

Part Two Sustainable Apparel Design, Retail and Recycling 161
6 Fashion design and sustainability 163
D. Williams
6.1 Introduction 163
6.2 Fashion and sustainability narratives 164
6.3 Fashion design for sustainability research and education 167
6.4 Fashion’s practices and locations 169
6.5 Fashion as agency 172
6.6 The making of making 172
6.7 The creation of flow 174
6.8 Fashion design roles and parts 176
6.9 Designer as determiner: The creator of boundary objects 178
6.10 Designer as cocreator: Facilitator 178
6.11 Designer as condition creator: The creator of learning devices 179
6.12 Design methods and design filters 180
6.13 Design from hierarchy to heterarchy 182
References 183
7 Technical design for recycling of clothing 187
E. Durham, A. Hewitt, R. Bell, S. Russell
7.1 Technical aspects of garment design 189
7.2 Automated disassembly of garments 192
7.3 Future trends 197
References 198
8 Sustainable apparel retail 199
M.P. Sumner
8.1 Introduction 199
8.2 The retail model 200
8.3 Sustainable retail 202
8.4 Retail impacts 205
8.5 Retail supply chains 208
8.6 Traceability and transparency 210
8.7 Consumer behavior 212
8.8 Sustainable retail futures 214
8.9 Conclusion 215
References 216
9 Measuring and communicating apparel sustainability 219
J.M. Kozar, K.Y. Hiller Connell
9.1 Introduction 219
9.2 Criteria of assessing apparel sustainability 219
9.3 Tools for measuring consumer aspects of apparel sustainability 221
9.4 Communicating apparel sustainability 225
9.5 Future trends 226
9.6 Conclusion 227
Sources of further information and advice 229
References 229
10 Apparel disposal and reuse 233
T. Lewis
10.1 Introduction 233
10.2 Fate of discarded apparel 234
10.3 Apparel reuse 241
10.4 Future trends 247
Sources of further information and advice 248
References 248
11 Apparel recycling 251
J.M. Hawley
11.1 Introduction to the problem 251
11.2 Fashion and overconsumption: The root cause of the waste problem 251
11.3 The apparel recycling process 254
11.4 Global examples 257
11.5 Rethinking what is fashionable 259
References 261
Index 263

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