Textile-led Design for the Active Ageing Population | Jane McCann and David Bryson

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Textile-led Design for the Active Ageing Population
Edited by Jane McCann and David Bryson
Textile-led Design for the Active Ageing Population

Contents
List of contributors xiii
Woodhead Publishing Series in Textiles xv

Part One Understanding the active ageing population 1
1 Technological culture and the active ageing: a lifetime of technological advances 3
D. Bryson
1.1 Introduction 3
1.2 Learning and teaching 3
1.3 Photography, audiovisual technologies, and e-learning 7
1.4 Implications for the active ageing 9
1.5 Conclusions 10
1.6 Sources of further information and advice 11
References 11
2 Clothing, identity, embodiment and age 13
J. Twigg
2.1 Introduction: clothing, social identity and age 13
2.2 Age ordering 14
2.3 Age-related clothing 15
2.4 The changing cultural location of older people 17
2.5 Baby boomers 18
2.6 Casual dress 20
2.7 Adjusting the cut 21
2.8 Conclusion 22
Acknowledgement 22
References 22
3 Attitudes to apparel amongst the baby boomer generation 25
P. Borcherding, J. Bubonia
3.1 Introduction 25
3.2 The baby boomers and the growth of marketing 27
3.3 Baby boomers and their interaction with apparel and textiles 29
3.4 Market implications 31
3.5 Current lifestyle trends for the baby boomers and product needs for the future 32
3.6 Conclusion 35
References 36
4 The importance of colour in textiles and clothing for an ageing population 39
C. Johnston
4.1 Introduction 39
4.2 Attitudes towards colour amongst the active ageing 39
4.3 The colour selection process for clothing 40
4.4 Colour forecasting 41
4.5 Classic and changing colours 42
4.6 How the colour selection process starts: designers and inspiration 42
4.7 Sharing information: the case of the British Textile Colour Group 43
4.8 How colour palettes are used 43
4.9 From colour palette to product 44
4.10 Conclusion 45
References 45
Further reading 45
5 The adoption and nonadoption of new technologies by the active ageing 47
D. Bryson
5.1 Introduction 47
5.2 Technological use by the active ageing 47
5.3 Internet access in care and nursing homes 48
5.4 Internet access, leisure activities, and the active ageing 50
5.5 How do the active ageing adopt new technologies? 51
5.6 Wearable technology and the active ageing 52
5.7 Tablet technologies and the active ageing 53
5.8 Social media, communities, and the active ageing 55
5.9 Conclusions 55
5.10 Sources of further information and advice 56
References 56

Part Two Understanding and researching apparel needs amongst the active ageing population 59
6 Qualitative and quantitative methods applied in active ageing 61
B.R.M. Manning, S. Benton
6.1 Introduction 61
6.2 Meaning and interpretation 61
6.3 Knowledge acquisition 63
6.4 Qualitative research methodologies 64
6.5 Survey techniques 66
6.6 Direct contact information-gathering techniques 68
6.7 Qualitative analysis techniques 71
6.8 Quantitative survey development 74
6.9 Research ethics 80
6.10 Qualitative research aspects of co-design 84
6.11 Future trends 86
References 89
7 Effective communication in product development of smart wearable clothing for the active ageing population 93
D. Taylor, M.W. Timmins
7.1 Introduction 93
7.2 Communication complexities in product design 94
7.3 Understanding the terminology of different disciplines in product design 96
7.4 Terms with different meanings between specialisms 97
7.5 Visual approaches to developing a common understanding 98
7.6 Bringing different disciplines together in co-design 98
7.7 Using visual communication to help develop a common language in the Design for Ageing Well (DfAW) project 100
7.8 Case study: communication between disciplines 101
7.9 Case study: communication with textile industry designers and manufacturers 102
7.10 Case study: communication with retail 104
7.11 Case study: communication with wearers 105
7.12 Conclusion 105
References 106
8 Anatomical and physiological changes with age: implications for apparel design 107
D. Bryson
8.1 Introduction 107
8.2 Anatomical and morphological changes 107
8.3 Physiological changes 110
8.4 Factors affecting wearability and unwearability 112
8.5 Conclusions 113
References 114
Further reading 116
9 Thermoregulation and clothing comfort 117
K. Stevens, M. Fuller
9.1 Introduction: what is clothing comfort? 117
9.2 Homeostasis and thermoregulation: maintaining a constant body temperature 118
9.3 Human thermoregulatory system 123
9.4 Thermoregulatory responses 125
9.5 Factors affecting thermoregulation 126
9.6 Clothing and thermoregulation: clothing as a barrier between
the body and the environment 128
9.7 Moisture management 132
9.8 Thermoregulation and the traditional outdoor layering system: discussion 134
Acknowledgement 137
References 137
10 Ageing populations: 3D scanning for apparel size and shape 139
J. Bougourd
10.1 Introduction 139
10.2 Population 139
10.3 Active ageing 141
10.4 Design for all ages 142
10.5 Anthropometrics 144
10.6 Case studies drawing on the sizeUK national sizing survey 154
10.7 Future trends 165
Acknowledgements 165
References 166

Part Three Apparel design requirements for the active ageing population 171
11 The role of wearable electronics in meeting the needs of the
active ageing population 173
D.C. Jones
11.1 Introduction 173
11.2 Current applications and end-users 175
11.3 Communication and entertainment 175
11.4 Comfort and safety in the outdoors 176
11.5 Fitness monitoring, sports performance and health care 177
11.6 Apparel heating systems 178
11.7 Commercial challenges of wearable electronics for active ageing 180
11.8 Implementation considerations 182
11.9 Conclusion 183
12 Overview of the design requirements of the active ageing 185
M.W. Timmins, J. McCann
12.1 Introduction 185
12.2 Defining smart clothes and wearable technology 186
12.3 An introduction to the clothing layering system 191
12.4 The identification of user needs: design fit for purpose 197
12.5 Co-design approach to smart clothing development 204
12.6 The way forward 209
References 213
Websites 213
13 Co-design principles and practice: working with the active ageing 215
J. McCann
13.1 Introduction 215
13.2 Capturing user experiences: clothing and technology 216
13.3 Explaining the attributes of the ‘layering system’ to older users 218
13.4 Segmenting types of walking 228
13.5 Creating personas to guide the design process 231
13.6 Creating a range plan to cater for different walking requirements 237
13.7 Future trends 240
13.8 Conclusion 242
References 243
14 Public involvement in garment design research 245
T. Williamson, S. Hinder
14.1 Introduction 245
14.2 Background to public involvement in design research 246
14.3 Planning for public involvement 247
14.4 Designing research studies 249
14.5 Conducting the research 252
14.6 Beyond the study 253
14.7 Additional processes 254
14.8 Conclusion 255
References 255
15 The co-design process for apparel for the active ageing population: the participant experience 257
M. Sinfield
15.1 Introduction 257
15.2 The New Dynamics of Ageing (NDA) programme and the Older People’s Reference Group (OPRG) 258
15.3 Engaging in the Design for Ageing Well project 259
15.4 Training of volunteers in user engagement 259
15.5 Getting to know terminology in the clothing for active ageing sector 260
15.6 Getting to know the textile industry: the International Sporting Goods Trade Fair 2010 (ISPO 2010) 261
15.7 Getting to know the textile retail sector 262
15.8 Getting volunteer participants 263
15.9 The co-design process and outcomes 264
15.10 Conclusions 267
References 268
16 Key choices in developing sustainable apparel for the active ageing population 269
V.L. Knowles, C.J. Hussey
16.1 Introduction 269
16.2 Ageing market 269
16.3 Understanding of sustainability 272
16.4 Achieving sustainability through considered design 277
16.5 Conclusion 279
References 280
17 Issues and techniques in the inclusive design of apparel for the active ageing population 283
J. Cassim
17.1 Background 283
17.2 Mechanisms of engagement 284
17.3 Inclusive design: origins, definitions, and the limits of terminology 286
17.4 Immersive workshops 292
17.5 User forums and interviews 295
17.6 Making the case for inclusive design 298
17.7 Conclusion 303
References 304

Part Four From design to apparel for the active ageing population 307
18 From co-design to design specifications and manufacture of apparel
for the active ageing population 309
J. Greengrass
18.1 Introduction 309
18.2 Design brief to point of sale (POS), the current process 310
18.3 Growing awareness of the ageing market 317
18.4 Co-design – listen, learn, develop, repeat, refine and repeat 317
18.5 Co-design – industry involvement 320
18.6 Getting to store 325
18.7 Conclusion 327
19 What textile fibres are applicable for the layering system for the active ageing? 329
R. Hibbert
19.1 Introduction 329
19.2 Natural fibres 330
19.3 Synthetic fibres 336
19.4 Synthetic cellulosics 342
19.5 Biofibres 344
19.6 Textiles and fibres for health and well-being 347
19.7 Smart, sensory and adaptive materials 349
19.8 Interactive technologies 350
19.9 Environmental and sustainability concerns 351
19.10 Conclusion 356
19.11 Future trends 357
References 357
Websites 358
Further reading 359
20 Designing base layers for apparel for the active ageing population:
balancing technology and aesthetics 361
V. Haffenden, J. Smith
20.1 Introduction 361
20.2 Defining technologies 362
20.3 The roles of body and base layers in a clothing system 367
20.4 Designing for the older body shape 368
20.5 Technical and aesthetic design considerations and processes 369
20.6 Manufacturing considerations: materials, methods and costs 377
20.7 Conclusion 379
20.8 Future trends 380
References 381
Further reading 383
21 Co-design development: design direction for the clothing layering system as a wearable technology platform 385
J. McCann
21.1 Introduction 385
21.2 Creating a hierarchy of emerging key design requirements 386
21.3 Sorting and elaborating the design requirements: form 391
21.4 Co-design prototype design development process 405
21.5 Technical 3D development 410
21.6 Final prototype development 412
21.7 The way forward: design direction to help bring product to market 419
References 422
Websites 423
22 Developing a strategy for the effective specification of functional clothing with integrated wearable technology 425
M.C. Price, C.M. Lewis
22.1 Introduction 425
22.2 Co-design team 426
22.3 Co-design development process: liaison with end-users 430
22.4 Liaison with technology developers 437
22.5 Liaison with garment developers 440
22.6 Design communication 445
22.7 Example: hybrid design specification 450
22.8 Challenges in the global clothing supply chain 453
22.9 Conclusion: more sustainable garment development 462
22.10 Future trends 463
References 465
Websites 466
23 Developing footwear for the active ageing population 469
M.J. Head, C.S. Porter
23.1 Introduction 469
23.2 Footwear requirements for older people 470
23.3 Meeting individual footwear requirements 472
23.4 Researching walking footwear for older people 476
23.5 Discussion: key requirements for walking shoes for older people 481
23.6 Conclusion 483
References 485
24 Design for ageing: a focus on China 487
W. Lu
24.1 Introduction 487
24.2 Background to clothing design in China 488
24.3 Introducing Design for Ageing Well in China 493
24.4 Case study: student project 496
24.5 Design direction: merging key findings 501
24.6 Way forward 505
References 507
25 Experiences in the design, iterative development and evaluation of a technology-enabled garment for active ageing walkers 509
W. Burns
25.1 Introduction 509
25.2 Background 509
25.3 Examples of research projects in health care monitoring 511
25.4 Research methodology 511
25.5 Prototype iterative developments and evaluations 516
25.6 Discussion 530
25.7 Conclusions 532
Acknowledgements 532
References 532
Index 535

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