Handbook of Fire Resistant Textiles Edited by F Selcen Kilinc

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Handbook of Fire Resistant Textiles
Edited by F. Selcen Kilinc
Handbook of Fire Resistant Textiles

Contents
Contributor contact details xv
Woodhead Publishing Series in Textiles xix
Introduction xxvii

Part I Overview of fire resistant textiles 1
1 Combustion processes of textile fi bres 3
D. Price and A. R. Horrocks , University of Bolton, UK
1.1 Introduction 3
1.2 Thermal transitions and degradation of polymers 4
1.3 Degradation of individual fi bre-forming polymer types 7
1.4 Polymer fi res and the infl uence of polymer degradation steps on subsequent fl ame retardant behaviour 14
1.5 Flame retardancy 15
1.6 Specifi c mechanistic issues relevant to fi bres and textiles: char formation 18
1.7 Potential of nanotechnology for fl ame retarding textiles 20
1.8 Future trends 21
1.9 References 22
2 Burning mechanisms of fi bers 26
R. Broughton and I. Cerkez , Auburn University, USA
2.1 Introduction 26
2.2 Ignition source 28
2.3 Thermal decomposition of solid to produce fuel 29
2.4 Escape of fuel vapor from the degrading solid 33
2.5 Reactions in the vapor state – oxidation 34
2.6 Excess heat diffusion back to the solid to produce more degradation 35
2.7 Reducing flammability 35
2.8 References 36
3 Chemical modifi cation of natural and synthetic textile fibres to improve flame retardancy 37
P. Joseph and S. Tretsiakova - McNally , University
of Ulster, UK
3.1 Introduction 37
3.2 Flame retardant strategies for textile materials 39
3.3 Polyesters 40
3.4 Polyamides 44
3.5 Cellulose-based fi bres: cotton, cotton blends and viscose 45
3.6 Wool and its blends 56
3.7 Silk fi bres 57
3.8 Miscellaneous fi bre-forming polymers 58
3.9 Conclusions and future trends 60
3.10 Sources for further information and advice 61
3.11 References 62
4 Multi-component fl ame resistant coating
techniques for textiles 68
J. Alongi , A. Frache , G. Malucelli and G. Camino , Politecnico di Torino, Italy
4.1 Introduction 68
4.2 Back-coating techniques 70
4.3 The sol–gel coating technique 72
4.4 Plasma surface treatments 76
4.5 Nanoparticle-based fi lms 82
4.6 Layer-by-layer assembly (LbL) 84
4.7 References 86
5 Care and maintenance of fabrics used for fl ame resistant personal protective equipment (PPE) 94
D. Loftin , David Loftin Consulting, Inc., USA
5.1 Introduction 94
5.2 The use of multiple fi ber and fabric options in personal protective equipment (PPE) 95
5.3 Available care and cleaning guidance 96
5.4 Designing a care and maintenance program 101
5.5 Implementing a care and maintenance program for flame resistant (FR) PPE garments 104
5.6 Conclusions 106
5.7 References 106
6 Safety, health and environmental aspects of flame retardants 108
M. M. Hirschler , GBH International, USA
6.1 Introduction 108
6.2 Relevant key types of fl ame retardants 110
6.3 Toxicity of smoke from combustion products 111
6.4 Effects of individual combustion products on fi re victims 114
6.5 Potential toxicity issues associated with individual fl ame retardants 120
6.6 Summary of toxicity issues associated with individual flame retardants 158
6.7 Environmental effects of smoke with and without flame retardants 161
6.8 Life-cycle assessment of environmental effects of using products with and without fl ame retardants 166
6.9 Conclusions 169
6.10 References 169

Part II Types of fire resistant fibre 175
7 Flame resistant cotton 177
C. Q. Yang , The University of Georgia, USA
7.1 Introduction 177
7.2 Non-durable and semi-durable fl ame retardants 181
7.3 Durable fl ame retardants 186
7.4 Flame retardants for cotton fl eece fabrics 204
7.5 Conclusions 213
7.6 Acknowledgments 213
7.7 References 214
8 Flame resistant manmade cellulosic fi bres 221
T. Burrow , Lenzing AG, UK
8.1 Introduction 221
8.2 Manmade cellulosic fi bres: types and properties 222
8.3 History of fl ame resistant manmade cellulosic fi bres 224
8.4 Strategies for making manmade cellulosic fi bres fl ame resistant 226
8.5 Additive selection 228
8.6 Commercially available fl ame resistant manmade cellulosic fi bres 232
8.7 Blends 236
8.8 Applications of fl ame resistant manmade cellulosic fi bres 238
8.9 New developments and technologies 240
8.10 Future trends 241
8.11 Sources of further information and advice 242
8.12 References 243
9 Flame resistant wool and wool blends 245
J. M. Cardamone , U.S. Department of Agriculture, USA
9.1 Introduction 245
9.2 The fl ame resistant (FR) properties of wool 246
9.3 The fl ame resistant properties of wool blends 248
9.4 Types of fi re resistant fi nishes 248
9.5 Polymeric fi re resistant fi nishes 253
9.6 Legislation relating to fi re resistant fi nishes 256
9.7 Fire resistant (FR) treatments for wool and wool blends: zirconium and titanium salts 257
9.8 FR treatments for wool and wool blends: ammonium phosphates and organophosphorus species 259
9.9 FR treatments for wool and wool blends: other treatments 263
9.10 References 268
10 Flame resistant ceramic fi bres 272
D. Price and A. R. Horrocks , University of Bolton, UK
10.1 Introduction 272
10.2 Types of ceramic fi bres 274
10.3 Applications of ceramic fi bres 278
10.4 Future trends 281
10.5 References 281
11 Flame resistant composites and nanocomposites 283
A. R. Horrocks and B. K. Kandola , University of Bolton, UK
11.1 Introduction 283
11.2 Key composite and nanocomposite fl ammability issues 286
11.3 Composite materials 289
11.4 Fire resistance of nanocomposites 304
11.5 Future trends 314
11.6 Sources of further information and advice 315
11.7 References 315
12 Flame resistant nonwoven fabrics 322
G. S. Bhat , The University of Tennessee, USA
12.1 Introduction 322
12.2 Nonwoven fabrics 323
12.3 Production of nonwovens 324
12.4 Flame resistance of nonwovens 327
12.5 Types of fl ame retardants 330
12.6 Flame resistance of cellulose 333
12.7 Flame resistant (FR) treatments of cellulosic fi bres 334
12.8 Highloft nonwovens and cotton blend highlofts 340
12.9 FR nonwoven applications 345
12.10 Future trends 346
12.11 References 347

Part III Testing and regulation of fi re resistant textiles 349
13 Selection of fl ame resistant protective clothing 351
A. Shaw , University of Maryland Eastern Shore, USA
13.1 Introduction 351
13.2 Compliance with minimum requirements 352
13.3 Key protection factors for the selection of fl ame resistant (FR) protective clothing 354
13.4 Other factors effecting the selection of FR garments 356
13.5 Case study: selection of FR workwear garments for protection against fl ash fi res 360
13.6 Sources of further information and advice 362
13.7 References 362
14 Flame resistant clothing standards and regulations 364
J. H aase , Consultant, Germany
14.1 Introduction 364
14.2 Standardisation bodies 366
14.3 Basic health and safety requirements (BHSR) 372
14.4 General standards which apply to all types of protective clothing 376
14.5 Standards for industrial garments 379
14.6 Clothing standards for specifi c jobs 391
14.7 Application of standards 401
14.8 Future trends 403
14.9 Sources of further information and advice 405
14.10 References 407
15 Characterizing comfort properties of fl ame resistant fabrics and garments 415
R. M. R ossi , Empa, Switzerland
15.1 Introduction 415
15.2 Defi nition of comfort in clothing 416
15.3 Comfort characterization methods 417
15.4 Comfort properties of fabrics and garments 420
15.5 Interactions between thermal protection and comfort 423
15.6 Future trends 425
15.7 References 426
16 Physiological impact of fl ame resistant clothing: managing heat stress 434
W. J. W illiams , National Institute for Occupational
Safety and Health (NIOSH), USA
16.1 Introduction 434
16.2 Overview of occupational heat stress 435
16.3 Physiological and environmental factors affecting body heat 437
16.4 Regulation of body heat 439
16.5 Heat stress resulting from use of fi re-retardant personal protective ensembles (FR-PPEs) 444
16.6 Strategies for mitigation of heat stress 445
16.7 Non-physiological cooling strategies 448
16.8 Conclusions 449
16.9 References 450
17 Flame retardancy testing and regulation of soft furnishings 456
S. N azaré and R. D. D avis , National Institute of Standards and Technology, USA
17.1 Introduction 456
17.2 Soft furnishing fl ammability regulations: mattresses 458
17.3 Soft furnishing fl ammability regulations: upholstered furniture 469
17.4 Factors contributing to the fl ammability of soft furnishings 476
17.5 Fire blocking technologies for soft furnishings 487
17.6 Future trends in fi re blocking technologies 493
17.7 References 494

Part IV Applications of fi re resistant textiles 499
18 Flame resistant textiles for fl ash fi res 501
S. L i , Milliken Research Corporation, USA and J. S poon ,
J. T. G reer and J. D. C liver , Milliken and Company, USA
18.1 Introduction 501
18.2 Flash fi re hazards and regulation 502
18.3 Performance and requirements of fl ame retardant textiles for fl ash fi re protection 504
18.4 Design of flame retardant fabrics and clothing for fl ash fi re protection 508
18.5 Fabric and fiber materials used in fl ash fi re applications 510
18.6 Recent advances in fl ash fi re clothing 513
18.7 Future trends 514
18.8 Sources of further information 515
18.9 References 516
19 Flame resistant textiles for structural and proximity fire fighting 520
G. S ong , University of Alberta, Canada and
Y. L u , Donghua University, P. R. China
19.1 Introduction 520
19.2 Exposure hazards 521
19.3 Design and performance requirements of fi refi ghter
protective clothing 523
19.4 Materials used in protective clothing for structural
and proximity fi refi ghting 523
19.5 Key issues in the design and manufacture of clothing
for structural and proximity firefighters 530
19.6 Advances in firefighter clothing materials and technology 537
19.7 Future trends 540
19.8 References 541
20 Flame resistant textiles for electric arc fl ash hazards 549
H. H oagland , ArcWear, USA
20.1 Introduction 549
20.2 Key flammability issues affecting electric arc clothing 550
20.3 The development of arc fl ash standards and testing 552
20.4 Performance requirements 554
20.5 Calculation of arc ratings 560
20.6 Design requirements 561
20.7 Materials used in electric arc applications 566
20.8 Effect of common weaves and other factors in arc fl ash 567
20.9 Advances in electric arc clothing 571
20.10 Future trends 575
20.11 Sources of further information 576
20.12 References 578
21 Flame resistant textiles for molten metal hazards 581
H. M äkinen , Finnish Institute of Occupational
Health (FIOH), Finland
21.1 Introduction 581
21.2 Key flammability issues for clothing protecting against molten metal 581
21.3 Hazards from molten metal 584
21.4 Performance requirements for protective clothing 586
21.5 Design requirements and materials for protective clothing 592
21.6 Advances in clothing protecting against molten metal hazards 597
21.7 Future trends 598
21.8 References 599
22 Flame resistant textiles for transport applications 603
A. R. H orrocks , University of Bolton, UK
22.1 Introduction 603
22.2 Key flammability issues of fi re retardant (FR) textiles in transport 604
22.3 General testing and performance requirements 605
22.4 Future trends 620
22.5 Sources of further information 620
22.6 References 620
23 Flame retardant fi ber-reinforced composites 623
A. B. M organ , University of Dayton Research Institute, USA
23.1 Introduction 623
23.2 Polymer fi ber-reinforced composite flammability fundamentals 625
23.3 Flame retardancy for fiber-reinforced polymer composites 633
23.4 Future trends 643
23.5 Acknowledgements 647
23.6 References 647
Index 653

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