Handbook of Textile and Industrial Dyeing, Volume 1: Principles, Processes and Types of Dyes

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Handbook of Textile and Industrial Dyeing, Volume 1: Principles, Processes and Types of Dyes
Edited by M. Clark
Handbook of Textile and Industrial Dyeing

Contents
Contributor contact details xiii
Woodhead Publishing Series in Textiles xvii

Part I General aspects of dyeing 1
1 Fundamental principles of dyeing 3
M. CLARK, University of Leeds, UK
1.1 Introduction 3
1.2 Principles of dyeing 3
1.3 Exhaust dyeing 4
1.4 Continuous dyeing 6
1.5 Printing 7
1.6 Classifi cation systems for dyes 8
1.7 Classifi cation of dyes by dye class 11
1.8 Conclusion 25
1.9 References 26
2 Structure and properties of textile materials 28
S. Grishanov, De Montfort University, UK
2.1 Introduction 28
2.2 Classifi cation and properties of textile fi bres 29
2.3 Fibre properties related to textile technology 32
2.4 Classifi cation and properties of basic textile products 34
2.5 Physical chemistry of fi bre polymers 42
2.6 Cellulosic fi bres 49
2.7 Protein fi bres 51
2.8 Man-made fi bres 54
2.9 Sources of further information and advice 60
2.10 References 61
3 Pre-treatment and preparation of textile materials prior to dyeing 64
A. K. ROY CHOUDHURY, Government College of Engineering and Textile Technology, Serampore, India
3.1 Introduction 64
3.2 Impurities in textile fi bres 65
3.3 Aims of preparatory processes 68
3.4 Preparation of cotton materials 69
3.5 Inspection and mending 69
3.6 Shearing and cropping 70
3.7 Singeing 72
3.8 Enzymatic processing 75
3.9 Desizing process 78
3.10 Scouring of cotton and other cellulosic fi bres 86
3.11 Mercerisation 97
3.12 Preparation of proteineous materials 103
3.13 Carbonisation and scouring of wool 103
3.14 Shrink-resist treatment for wool 106
3.15 Degumming of silk 108
3.16 Preparation of synthetic materials 114
3.17 Bleaching 121
3.18 Improvement of whiteness 143
3.19 References 147
4 Chemistry of dyeing 150
D. P. CHATTOPADHYAY, The Maharaja Sayajirao
University of Baroda, India
4.1 Fundamental principles of direct dyeing 150
4.2 Fundamental principles of reactive dyeing 157
4.3 Fundamental principles of disperse dyeing 162
4.4 Fundamental principles of acid dyeing 164
4.5 Fundamental principles of azoic dyeing 167
4.6 Fundamental principles of vat dyeing 173
4.7 Fundamental principles of sulphur dyeing 179
4.8 Conclusions 181
4.9 References 182
5 Thermodynamics and kinetics of dyeing and dyebath monitoring systems 184
M. FERUS-COMELO, SmartLab Ltd, UK
5.1 Introduction 184
5.2 Thermodynamics of dyeing 184
5.3 Kinetics of dyeing 192
5.4 Dyebath monitoring systems 198
5.5 Sources of further information 202
5.6 References 202
5.7 Appendix: mathematical symbols 206
6 An overview of dye fastness testing 207
J. N. CHAKRABORTY, National Institute of Technology, Jalandhar, India
6.1 Introduction 207
6.2 Overview of dye fastness testing 207
6.3 Grading of fastness properties 209
6.4 Factors infl uencing dye fastness 210
6.5 Application 213
6.6 Conclusions 221
6.7 Sources of further information and advice 222
6.8 References 222
7 Molecular modeling and predicting dye properties 225
A. El-SHAFEI, D. HINKS and H. S. FREEMAN, North Carolina State University, USA
7.1 Introduction 225
7.2 Prediction of wavelength of maximum absorption 226
7.3 Effect of crystal packing on ëmax 232
7.4 Ab initio calculations of crystal structures 239
7.5 Quantitative-structure activity relationship in dye–fi ber affinity prediction 240
7.6 References 242
8 Methods and machinery for the dyeing process 245
G. P. NAIR, Technical Advisor (Textiles), Technocrat Society, India
8.1 Introduction 245
8.2 Jiggers 246
8.3 Beam dyeing machines 253
8.4 Winches 256
8.5 Jet dyeing machines with hydraulic fl ow system 257
8.6 Airfl ow dyeing machines with aerodynamic fl ow system 264
8.7 Atmospheric softfl ow/overfl ow dyeing machines 269
8.8 HT softfl ow/overfl ow dyeing machines 274
8.9 Machines to dye fabric in rope/open-width form 277
8.10 Semi-continuous and continuous open-width dyeing machines 278
8.11 Future trends 291
8.12 References 296
8.13 Appendix: list of machinery manufacturers 298

Part II Dye types and processes 301
9 The chemistry of reactive dyes and their application processes 303
D. M. LEWIS, University of Leeds, UK
9.1 Introduction 303
9.2 The history of reactive dye development 304
9.3 Chemistry of commercially available reactive dyes 307
9.4 The application of reactive dyes to cellulosic fi bres 330
9.5 The application of reactive dyes to natural and synthetic polyamide fi bres 337
9.6 Miscellaneous methods to covalently bond dyes to fi bres 347
9.7 Conclusions 357
9.8 References 359
10 Disperse dyes 365
M. L. GULRAJANI, Indian Institute of Technology,
Delhi, India
10.1 Introduction 365
10.2 Developments in disperse dyes 367
10.3 Types of disperse dye 373
10.4 Properties of disperse dyes 386
10.5 Future trends 387
10.6 References 391
11 Natural dyes 395
B. H. PATEL, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, India
11.1 Introduction 395
11.2 Classification of natural dyes 396
11.3 Chemistry of natural dyes 402
11.4 Chemistry and types of mordants 412
11.5 Application of mordants to textiles 414
11.6 Application of natural dyes to textiles 416
11.7 Fastness properties of natural dyes 418
11.8 Future trends 421
11.9 Sources of further information and advice 421
11.10 References 421
12 Direct dyes 425
N. SEKAR, Institute of Chemical Technology Mumbai, India
12.1 Introduction 425
12.2 Classifi cation of direct dyes according to dyeing characteristics 426
12.3 Classifi cation based on chemical structure 428
12.4 Bisazine dyes and copper phthalocyanine dyes 441
12.5 Future trends 443
12.6 Sources of further information and advice 443
12.7 References 443
13 Metal-complex dyes 446
J. N. CHAKRABORTY, National Institute of Technology, Jalandhar, India
13.1 Introduction 446
13.2 General properties 447
13.3 Chemistry of dyes 449
13.4 Classifi cation and nomenclature 452
13.5 Mordant dyes 454
13.6 Premetallised dyes 457
13.7 Fastness of dyed fabrics 461
13.8 The problem of waste water 461
13.9 Future trends 462
13.10 Sources of further information and advice 463
13.11 References 463
14 Sulphur dyes 466
J. N. CHAKRABORTY, National Institute of Technology, Jalandhar, India
14.1 Introduction 466
14.2 Properties of sulphur dyes 467
14.3 Chemistry of sulphur dyes 468
14.4 Synthesis 469
14.5 Classifi cation of sulphur dyes 471
14.6 Practical application 472
14.7 Reducing systems 475
14.8 Oxidising agents 478
14.9 Bronzing of dyeing 479
14.10 Fastness of dyed textiles 479
14.11 Tendering effect on cellulose 480
14.12 Waste-water load from sulphur dyebath 480
14.13 Strengths and limitations 481
14.14 Stripping of sulphur dyes 482
14.15 Future trends 482
14.16 Sources of further information and advice 483
14.17 References 483
15 Acid dyes 486
N. SEKAR, Institute of Chemical Technology Mumbai, India
15.1 Introduction 486
15.2 Classifi cation of acid dyes 487
15.3 Azo acid dyes 489
15.4 Anthraquinone dyes 499
15.5 Acid nitro dyes 504
15.6 Triphenylmethane acid dyes 505
15.7 Water-repellent dyes 509
15.8 Acid dyes with inherent light fastness 509
15.9 Acid dyes free from 1-naphthylamine 510
15.10 Future trends 510
15.11 Sources of further information and advice 510
15.12 References 511
16 Environmentally friendly dyes 515
R. B. CHAVAN, Bahir Dar University, Ethiopia
16.1 Introduction 515
16.2 Classifi cation of dyes 517
16.3 Environmental issues in dyeing 524
16.4 Environmentally friendly dyeing of cotton with reactive dyes 545
16.5 Alternative reducing systems for the dyeing of cotton with vat and sulphur dyes 549
16.6 Environmentally friendly dyeing of wool 551
16.7 Environmentally friendly dyeing of polyester 552
16.8 Future trends 554
16.9 References 556
17 Fluorescent dyes 562
R. M. CHRISTIE, Heriot-Watt University, UK
17.1 Introduction 562
17.2 Fluorescence 563
17.3 Chemical types of fl uorescent dye 567
17.4 Textile applications of fl uorescent dyes 577
17.5 Other applications of fl uorescent dyes 580
17.6 Future trends 583
17.7 Sources of further information 584
17.8 References 585
18 Near-infrared dyes 588
S.-H. KIM, Kyungpook National University, South Korea
and Y.-A. SON, Chungnam National University, South Korea
18.1 Introduction 588
18.2 Properties of near-infrared (NIR) dyes 589
18.3 Types of NIR dyes 590
18.4 Applications 595
18.5 Future trends 598
18.6 References 599
19 Azoic dyeing 604
D. P. CHATTOPADHYAY, The Maharaja Sayajirao
University of Baroda, India
19.1 Introduction 604
19.2 Advantages and disadvantages of azoic dyeing 605
19.3 Chemistry of azoic dyeing 605
19.4 Colours obtainable using azoic components 608
19.5 Methods for dissolution of naphthol 608
19.6 Naphtholation and dyeing of cotton 610
19.7 Intermediate treatments 612
19.8 Development 613
19.9 After-treatment 621
19.10 Dyeing of silk 621
19.11 Dyeing of polyester 621
19.12 Dyeing of nylon 622
19.13 Fastness properties 622
19.14 Stripping of azoic colours 622
19.15 Environmental issues associated with azoic colours 623
19.16 Conclusion 625
19.17 References 625
Index 627

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