Improving Comfort in Clothing Edited by Guowen Song

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Improving Comfort in Clothing
Edited by Guowen Song

Contents
Contributor contact details xi
Woodhead Publishing Series in Textiles xv
Preface xxiii

Part I Fundamentals of comfort and assessment 1
1 Factors affecting comfort: human physiology and the
role of clothing 3
A. K. Roy Choudhury, P. K. Majumdar and C. Datta,
Government College of Engineering and Textile Technology, India
1.1 Definition of comfort 3
1.2 Human physiological aspect of comfort 4
1.3 Energy metabolism and physical work 8
1.4 Human heat balance 11
1.5 Clothing as near environment 18
1.6 Various aspects of clothing comfort 22
1.7 Comfort variables 27
1.8 Effective temperature and the comfort chart 37
1.9 Response to extreme temperature 42
1.10 Development of heat stress and its control 43
1.11 Protective clothing 45
1.12 Future trends and further information and advice 56
1.13 References 57
2 Properties of fibers and fabrics that contribute to human comfort 61
S. A. Hoss eini Ravandi, Isfahan University of Technology, Iran and
M. Valizadeh, University of Guilan, Iran
2.1 Introduction 61
2.2 Comfort properties of fibers 63
2.3 Physical modification of fibers 67
2.4 Comfort properties of yarns 71
2.5 Comfort properties of fabric structures 74
2.6 Conclusions 76
2.7 References 76
3 Wool and garment comfort 79
J. Stanton, Department of Agriculture and Food (Western Australia), Australia
3.1 Introduction 79
3.2 Wool quality 80
3.3 Benchmarking: wool quality in retail garments 81
3.4 Comfort in wool garments: a new assessment protocol 84
3.5 Wool garment comfort assessment 85
3.6 Comfort response of individuals 88
3.7 Wool quality and garment comfort 92
3.8 Conclusions 93
3.9 Sources of further information and advice 94
3.10 Acknowledgments 94
3.11 References 94
4 How consumers perceive comfort in apparel 97
F. S. Kilinc-Balci, Auburn University, USA
4.1 Introduction 97
4.2 How humans sense comfort 99
4.3 The Nervous System 99
4.4 Human brain 101
4.5 Skin and its functions 102
4.6 Structure of the skin 104
4.7 Senses and sensory receptors 105
4.8 Skin and senses 106
4.9 Sensations and fabrics 106
4.10 Psychological factors and overall comfort perception 110
4.11 Conclusions 112
4.12 References 112
5 Laboratory measurement of thermo-physiological comfort 114
L. Hes, Technical University of Liberec, Czech Republic and
J. Williams, De Montfort University, UK
5.1 Introduction 114
5.2 Thermo-physiological comfort 115
5.3 Thermal resistance 116
5.4 Water vapour transport 117
5.5 Air permeability 129
5.6 Wicking, buffering and absorbency 131
5.7 New developments and future trends 134
5.8 References 135
6 Testing, analyzing and predicting the comfort properties of textiles 138
F. S. Kilinc-Balci, Auburn University, USA
6.1 Introduction 138
6.2 Characterization of comfort 139
6.3 Testing, analyzing and predicting neurophysiological comfort 140
6.4 Testing, analyzing and predicting thermophysiological comfort 147
6.5 Design-oriented comfort model 155
6.6 Future trends 158
6.7 References 158

Part II Improving comfort in apparel 163
7 Improving thermal comfort in apparel 165
C. P. Ho, J. Fan, E. Newton and R. Au, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, P.R. China
7.1 Introduction 165
7.2 Different approaches for improving the thermal comfort of clothing 166
7.3 Conclusions 178
7.4 References 179
8 Improving moisture management in apparel 182
R. S. Rengasam y, Indian Institute of Technology, India
8.1 Introduction 182
8.2 Transport of perspiration 183
8.3 Fundamentals of moisture transfer between the human body and the environment 188
8.4 Factors influencing moisture transport 199
8.5 Improving moisture transport 201
8.6 Clothing requirements for different environmental conditions 204
8.7 Developments in moisture management 208
8.8 Future trends 211
8.9 Sources of further information and advice 212
8.10 References 212
9 Improving tactile comfort in fabrics and clothing 216
A. Das and R. Alagirusam y, Indian Institute of Technology, India
9.1 Introduction 216
9.2 Comfort and neurophysiology 217
9.3 Human tactile sensation 222
9.4 Fabric mechanical properties and tactile-pressure sensations 224
9.5 Warmth or coolness to the touch of fabrics 229
9.6 Improving the textile surface properties for tactile sensation 233
9.7 Predictability of sensory comfort 234
9.8 Improving electrostatic propensity 238
9.9 Future trends 241
9.10 Conclusions 241
9.11 References 242
10 Garment pattern design and comfort 245
P. Watkins, London College of Fashion, UK
10.1 Introduction: fundamental principles of fit in apparel 245
10.2 Clothing comfort and fit 247
10.3 Manual and mechanical stretch testing 252
10.4 Stretch pattern development 262
10.5 Future trends 272
10.6 Conclusions 272
10.7 Sources of further information and advice 273
10.8 References 273
11 Improving body movement comfort in apparel 278
S. P. Ashdown, Cornell University, USA
11.1 Introduction: fundamental principles of movement in apparel 278
11.2 Fashion and functional apparel: aesthetics, protection, performance and movement 285
11.3 Materials and design strategies to provide appropriate movement performance 286
11.4 Movement and garment stretch/pressure/compression 288
11.5 Research and testing of prototype designs for comfort and movement 291
11.6 Future trends 295
11.7 Sources of further information and advice 298
11.8 References 298

Part III Improving comfort in particular types of clothing 303
12 Evaluating the heat stress and comfort of firefighter
and emergency responder protective clothing 305
R. Bark er, North Carolina State University, USA
12.1 Introduction 305
12.2 Background 306
12.3 Laboratory tests for clothing heat stress 306
12.4 Laboratory tests for clothing comfort 311
12.5 Research needs 315
12.6 References 317
13 Improving comfort in military protective clothing 320
S. Dunca n, DRDC Suffield, Canada, T. McLellan, DRDC Toronto,
Canada and E. G. Dickson, Royal Military College of Canada, Canada
13.1 Introduction 320
13.2 Historical perspective 322
13.3 Threat level and concept of operations 324
13.4 Understanding system level whole-body protection: baseline performance 327
13.5 Civilian style protective systems 329
13.6 Adsorptive undergarments 332
13.7 Cold War individual protective equipment 334
13.8 Post-Gulf War individual protective equipment 340
13.9 Asymmetric operations (individual protective equipment) 353
13.10 Conclusions 364
13.11 Future trends 365
13.12 Acknowledgements 366
13.13 References 366
14 Balancing comfort and function in textiles worn by medical personnel 370
W. Cao, California State University – Northridge, USA and
R. M. Cloud, Baylor University, USA
14.1 Introduction 370
14.2 Surgical gowns 372
14.3 Surgical gloves 377
14.4 Surgical masks 379
14.5 Future trends 381
14.6 References 382
15 Improving comfort in sports and leisure wear 385
V. T. Bar tels, Bartels Scientific Consulting GmbH, Germany
15.1 Introduction 385
15.2 Market share of sports and leisure wear and affected group of users 385
15.3 Definition of sports and leisure wear 386
15.4 Influence of sportswear on everyday and leisure wear fashion 388
15.5 Physiological demands on sports, everyday and leisure wear 388
15.6 Testing sports, everyday and leisure wear comfort 393
15.7 Textile constructions for sports, everyday and leisure wear 397
15.8 Application examples 400
15.9 Recent and future trends in sports, everyday and leisure wear 405
15.10 Future trends in testing comfort of sports, everyday and leisure wear 407
15.11 Conclusions 408
15.12 Sources of further information and advice 408
15.13 References 409
16 Cold weather clothing and comfort 412
I. Holmér, Lund University, Sweden
16.1 Introduction 412
16.2 Thermal comfort and heat balance 413
16.3 Requirements for comfort in the cold 417
16.4 Principles for cold weather clothing 418
16.5 Future trends 424
16.6 Sources of further information and advice 424
16.7 References 424
17 Achieving comfort in intimate apparel 427
W. Yu, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, P.R. China
17.1 Introduction 427
17.2 Sensorial comfort for intimate apparel 427
17.3 Thermal comfort for intimate apparel 432
17.4 Motion comfort for intimate apparel 434
17.5 Aesthetic comfort for intimate apparel 440
17.6 Hygienic comfort for intimate apparel 442
17.7 Acknowledgement 443
17.8 Sources of further information and advice 443
17.9 References 443
Index 449

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