Joining Textiles: Principles and Applications Edited by I. Jones and G. K. Stylios

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Joining Textiles: Principles and Applications
Edited by I. Jones and G. K. Stylios
Joining Textiles: Principles and Applications

Contents
Contributor contact details xiii
Woodhead Publishing Series in Textiles xvii
Introduction xxvii
1 Types of fabric and their joining requirements 1
J. McLoughLin and S. hayeS, Manchester Metropolitan University, UK
1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 The main types of natural ibre 2
1.3 Synthetic ibres 8
1.4 High performance ibres 12
1.5 The process of creating fabrics from ibres 14
1.6 Woven fabric structures 16
1.7 Knitted fabric structures 21
1.8 Non-woven fabrics 27
1.9 Joining fabrics: seams and stitches 28
1.10 Stitching in practice: the case of high performance fabrics 33
1.11 Alternative methods of joining fabrics: welded seams 39
1.12 Ultrasonic welding 41
1.13 Conclusions 43
1.14 Acknowledgements 43
1.15 References and further reading 44

Part I Sewing technology 45
2 The mechanics of stitching 47
G. K. StyLioS, Heriot-Watt University, UK
2.1 Introduction 47
2.2 The principles of stitching 48
2.3 Conclusion 59
2.4 References 59
2.5 Appendix: nomenclature and notation 60
3 The sewing of textiles 62
S. hayeS and J. McLoughLin, Manchester Metropolitan University,
UK
3.1 Introduction 62
3.2 Types of sewing machine 63
3.3 Machine feeding systems 68
3.4 Machine settings and sewing quality 73
3.5 Needle size and point type 83 3.6 Stitch classification and applications 86
3.7 Seam classiication and applications 89
3.8 Sewing threads 93
3.9 Seaming quality problems 101
3.10 Seam pucker: causes and prevention 104
3.11 Thread breakage: causes and prevention 106
3.12 Needle breakage 108
3.13 Slipped/missed stitching: causes and prevention 108
3.14 Uneven seams: causes and prevention 110
3.15 Comparing welded and sewn seams 111
3.16 Future trends 120
3.17 References and further reading 120
4 Mechanisms of sewing machines 123
J. McLoughLin and A. MitcheLL, Manchester Metropolitan
University, UK
4.1 Introduction 123
4.2 The evolution of the sewing machine 124
4.3 Machine categorisation 126
4.4 Integrated stitching unit (ISU) 127
4.5 Types of motors used in sewing machines 132
4.6 Three-thread overlock with a microprocessor 134
4.7 Mechanised sewing machines 135
4.8 Semi-automatic machines, automated workstations and transfer lines 138
4.9 Advantages and limitations of machine automation 144
4.10 Computer numerical control (CNC) 145
4.11 Achieving fully automated apparel manufacture through the application of robotics 145
4.12 Conclusion 146
4.13 Sources of further information and advice 148
4.14 References and further reading 148
5 Problems relating to sewing 149
M. carvaLho, h. carvaLho and L. F. SiLva, University of Minho,
Portugal
5.1 Introduction 149
5.2 Seam elasticity 150
5.3 Seam failure 150
5.4 Seam problems related to material feeding 160
5.5 Problems in stitch formation 162
5.6 Seam pucker and other surface distortions 167
5.7 Future trends 169
5.8 Sources of further information and advice 171
5.9 References 171
6 The quality and performance of sewn seams 175
A. Mukhopadhyay and V. k. Midha, National Institute of
Technology Jalandhar, India
6.1 Introduction 175
6.2 Seam strength 176
6.3 Seam extensibility and recovery 187
6.4 Seam puckering 189
6.5 Seam slippage 194
6.6 Drape and bending 195
6.7 Seam grinning/gaping 197
6.8 Barrier properties of seams 198
6.9 Flame retardancy of seams 199
6.10 Degradation/damage of seams 200
6.11 Sources of further information and advice 203
6.12 References 203
7 Intelligent sewing systems for garment automation and robotics 208
G. K. StyLioS, Heriot-Watt University, UK
7.1 Introduction 208
7.2 Developments in the automation of sewing 208
7.3 Operational principles of the intelligent sewability environment (ISE) 218
7.4 Conclusions 220
7.5 References 221

Part II Adhesive bonding of textiles 223
8 Adhesive bonding of textiles: principles, types of adhesive and methods of use 225
E. M. petrie, Independent Consultant, USA
8.1 Introduction to adhesives in the textile industry 225
8.2 Reasons for the success and failure of adhesives 235 8.3 Classiication of adhesives used in textile applications 243
8.4 Bonding processes 252
8.5 Trends in adhesive types 264
8.6 References 274
9 Adhesives bonding of textiles: applications 275
E. StaMMen and k. diLger, Technical University Braunschweig, Germany
9.1 Introduction: textiles and adhesive joining 275
9.2 Adhesives and adhesive applications 282
9.3 Properties achieved by adhesive joining 293
9.4 Examples of adhesive use 297
9.5 Future trends 306
9.6 Acknowledgements 307
9.7 References 307
10 Bonding requirements in coating and laminating of textiles 309
e. ShiM, North Carolina State University, USA
10.1 Introduction 309
10.2 Materials and adhesives in coating and laminating 313
10.3 Coating process 321
10.4 Laminating process 332
10.5 Properties and applications of coated and laminated fabrics 336
10.6 Conclusion 345
10.7 Further reading 346
10.8 References 347

Part III Welding technologies 353
11 The use of heat sealing, hot air and hot wedge to
join textile materials 355
I. JoneS, TWI Ltd, UK
11.1 Heat sealing of textiles: introduction 355
11.2 Equipment for heat sealing 356
11.3 Factors affecting the quality of heat sealing 359
11.4 Applications of heat sealing in textiles 362
11.5 Hot air wedge and hot wedge welding of textiles: introduction 362
11.6 Equipment for hot air/wedge welding 363
11.7 Factors affecting the quality of hot air/wedge welding 368
11.8 Applications of hot air/wedge welding in textiles 371
11.9 References and further reading 372
12 Ultrasonic and dielectric welding of textiles 374
I. JoneS, TWI Ltd, UK
12.1 Ultrasonic welding: an introduction 374
12.2 Equipment for ultrasonic welding 375
12.3 Factors affecting the quality of ultrasonic welding 379
12.4 Applications of ultrasonic welding in textiles 385
12.5 Dielectric welding: an introduction 388
12.6 Equipment for dielectric welding 390
12.7 Factors affecting the quality of dielectric welding 394
12.8 Applications of dielectric welding 394
12.9 References and further reading 395
13 Laser seaming of fabrics 398
I. JoneS, TWI Ltd, UK and A. patiL, Vascutek Ltd, UK
13.1 Introduction 398
13.2 The laser welding process 398
13.3 The main processing parameters in laser welding and their effects 401
13.4 Equipment in laser welding 405
13.5 Textile materials that can be laser welded 414
13.6 Joint designs in laser welding 416
13.7 Monitoring and quality control in laser welding 418
13.8 Comparison between stitched and laser welded seams 420
13.9 Applications of laser welding 425
13.10 Future trends 433
13.11 References 434
14 Properties and performance of welded or bonded seams 435
E. vuJaSinovic and D. rogaLe, University of Zagreb, Croatia
14.1 Introduction 435
14.2 Performance properties of seams 436
14.3 Quality evaluation of welded or bonded seams 457
14.4 Conclusion 458
14.5 References 461

Part IV Applications of joining textiles 465
15 The appearance of seams in non-iron shirts 467
G. K. StyLioS, Heriot-Watt University, UK
15.1 Introduction 467
15.2 Wrinkle-free fabrics 467
15.3 Non-iron shirts and seam pucker 468
15.4 Interlinings as sewing aids 470
15.5 The stitching of non-iron shirts 471
15.6 Discussion and conclusion 473
15.7 Acknowledgements 475
15.8 Appendix: key terms and definitions 476
16 Seams in car seat coverings: properties and performance 478
S. kovačević and D. uJević, University of Zagreb, Croatia
16.1 Introduction 478
16.2 Materials and machines for sewing car seat covers 479 16.3 Inluence of the seam on materials for making car seat
covers 490
16.4 Seaming problems in car seat covers and their solution 498
16.5 Future trends 501
16.6 Conclusions 503
16.7 Acknowledgement 504
16.8 References 504
17 Joining of wearable electronic components 507
D. J. tyLer, Manchester Metropolitan University, UK
17.1 Introduction 507 17.2 Conducting ibres 510
17.3 Conducting yarns 511
17.4 Fabrics and composites 512
17.5 Connecting technologies 514
17.6 Requirements of electronic interconnects 522
17.7 Applications 526
17.8 Future trends 530
17.9 Sources of further information and advice 532
17.10 Acknowledgements 533
17.11 References 533
18 Joining of technical textiles with stringent seam demands 536
S. kovačević and D. uJević, University of Zagreb, Croatia
18.1 Introduction 536
18.2 Joining techniques for textiles with stringent seam demands 538
18.3 Applications of stringent seams in technical textiles 545
18.4 Future trends 562
18.5 Sources of further information and advice 562
18.6 Acknowledgement 563
18.7 References 563
19 Nonwoven materials and joining techniques 565
A. pourMohaMMadi, University of Payame Noor, Iran
19.1 Introduction 565
19.2 Principles of nonwovens 565
19.3 Raw materials 570
19.4 Web formation technology 571
19.5 Web bonding technology 574 19.6 Nonwoven fabric inishing 575
19.7 Techniques for joining nonwoven materials 575
19.8 Future trends in the nonwoven market 578
19.9 Acknowledgements 581
19.10 References 581
20 Epilogue: joining textiles 582
I. JoneS, TWI Ltd, UK and G. K. StyLioS, Heriot-Watt University, UK
Index 583

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