Multidisciplinary Know-How for Smart-Textiles Developers | Tünde Kirstein

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Multidisciplinary Know- How for Smart- Textiles Developers
Edited by Tünde Kirstein
Multidisciplinary Know- How for Smart- Textiles Developers

Contents
Contributor contact details xi
Woodhead Publishing Series in Textiles xv
1 The future of smart- textiles development: new enabling technologies, commercialization and market trends 1
T. K IRSTEIN , TechPublish, Switzerland
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 The technological trade- off between smartness and integration 2
1.3 New enabling technologies for smart textiles 5
1.4 New approaches in commercialization of smart textiles 13
1.5 Future trends 18
1.6 Conclusion 22
1.7 References 22

Part I Materials 27
2 Types and processing of electro- conductive and semiconducting materials for smart textiles 29
A. S CHWARZ , RWTH Aachen University, Germany and L. V AN L ANGENHOVE , Ghent University, Belgium
2.1 Introduction 29
2.2 Electro- conductive and semi conductive materials 30
2.3 Electro- conductive materials and their properties 36
2.4 Metals 37
2.5 Carbon: carbon black (CB), graphite and carbon nanotubes (CNT) 42
2.6 Intrinsically conductive polymers (ICP) 45
2.7 Semiconductive materials and their properties 47
2.8 Processing electro- conductive and semiconductive materials into textile structures 51
2.9 Future trends 58
2.10 Sources of further information and advice 58
2.11 Notes 59
2.12 References 60
3 Optical fi bers for smart photonic textiles 70
S. G ORGUTSA , J. B ERZOWKSA and M. S KOROBOGATIY , Ecole
Polytechnique de Montréal, Canada
3.1 Introduction to photonic textiles 70
3.2 Total internal refl ection (TIR) fi ber- based photonic textiles 73
3.3 Photonic bandgap (PBG) fi ber- based photonic textiles 76
3.4 Photonic textile manufacturing 82
3.5 Refl ective properties of photonic bandgap textiles under ambient illumination 85
3.6 Animated photonic bandgap textiles using mixing
of ambient and emitted light 86
3.7 Potential applications of photonic bandgap textiles 86
3.8 Conclusion 89
3.9 Acknowledgments 89
3.10 References 89
4 Conductive nanofi bres and nanocoatings for smart textiles 92
S. M. S HANG and W. Z ENG , The Hong Kong Polytechnic
University, Hong Kong
4.1 Introduction 92
4.2 Conductive nanofi bres 92
4.3 Conductive nanocoating 101
4.4 Application of nanotechnology in smart textiles 110
4.5 Future trends 120
4.6 Sources of further information and advice 120
4.7 References 120
5 Polymer- based resistive sensors for smart textiles 129
C. C OCHRANE and A. C AYLA , University Lille Nord de
France, ENSAIT / GEMTEX, France
5.1 Introduction 129
5.2 Mechanical resistive sensors 132
5.3 Chemical resistive sensors 139
5.4 Temperature resistive sensors 144
5.5 Conclusion and future trends 148
5.6 References 148
6 Soft capacitance fi bers for touch- sensitive
smart textiles 154
S. G ORGUTSA and M. S KOROBOGATIY , Ecole Polytechnique
de Montréal, Canada
6.1 Introduction: overview of capacitive sensing 154
6.2 Soft capacitor fi bers for electronic textiles 156
6.3 Electrical characterization of the isolated capacitor
fi ber 162
6.4 Capacitor fi ber as a one- dimensional distributed
touch sensor 170
6.5 Fully woven two- dimensional touch pad sensor
using a one- dimensional array of capacitance fi bers 183
6.6 Conclusion 186
6.7 References 186

Part II Technologies 189
7 Textile fabrication technologies for embedding electronic functions into fi bres, yarns and fabrics 191
J. E ICHHOFF , A. H EHL , S. J OCKENHOEVEL and
T. G RIES , RWTH Aachen University, Germany
7.1 Introduction 191
7.2 Fibre and yarn production processes: natural fi bres 192
7.3 Fibre and yarn production processes: continuous (man- made) fi bres 197
7.4 Functionalisation of fi bres and yarns 199
7.5 Fabric production: weaving 202
7.6 Fabric production: knitting 208
7.7 Fabric production: braiding 212
7.8 Embroidery 218
7.9 Challenges in smart-textile production 224
7.10 Notes 224
7.11 References 225
8 Fabrication technologies for the integration of thin- fi lm electronics into smart textiles 227
C. Z YSSET , T. K INKELDEI , N. M ÜNZENRIEDER and
G. T RÖSTER , ETH Zurich, Switzerland and K. C HERENACK ,
Philips Research Eindhoven, The Netherlands
8.1 Introduction 227
8.2 Merging fl exible electronics and smart textiles 229
8.3 Demonstrators 238
8.4 Mechanical reliability of contacts 246
8.5 Conclusion and future trends 247
8.6 Sources of further information and advice 249
8.7 Notes 249
8.8 References 250
9 Organic and large- area electronic (OLAE) technologies for smart textiles 253
F. E LLINGER and C. C ARTA , Technische Universität Dresden,
Germany, A. H ÜBLER and G. S CHMIDT , Technische Universität
Chemnitz, Germany, J. Z APF , Siemens, Germany, G. T RÖSTER ,
ETH Zürich, Switzerland, A. T ALO , Enfucell, Finland, D. K OZAKIS ,
Data Control Systems, Greece, D. V ASSILIADIS , Exoduss, Greece,
R. P ARADISO , Smartex, Italy, M. K REBS , Varta, Germany, M. S CHARBER ,
Konarka, Germany and M. T UOMIKOSKI , VTT, Finland
9.1 Introduction 253
9.2 Flexible technologies for textile integration 258
9.3 Circuit design 273
9.4 Textile integration 277
9.5 Packaging integration and service life issues 279
9.6 References 280
9.7 Appendix: abbreviations and acronyms 283
10 Joining technologies for smart textiles 285
I. L OCHER , SEFAR AG, Switzerland
10.1 Introduction 285
10.2 Components of an electronic system in textiles 286
10.3 Conductive threads as electrical traces 287
10.4 Introduction to joining technologies for electronics 289
10.5 Overview of existing jointing technologies in the electronics and in the textile world 290
10.6 Summary to the joining technology overview 299
10.7 Protection of electrical connections 301
10.8 Challenges for electronic systems on textiles 302
10.9 Challenges for automated processes in electronic systems on textiles 303
10.10 Future trends 304
10.11 References 305
11 Kinetic, thermoelectric and solar energy harvesting technologies for smart textiles 306
S. P. B EEBY , Z. C AO and A. A LMUSSALLAM , University of
Southampton, UK
11.1 Introduction 306
11.2 Energy sources and storage: key issues 307
11.3 Fabrication processes 308
11.4 Kinetic energy harvesting for smart textiles 309
11.5 Thermoelectric energy harvesting for smart textiles 315
11.6 Solar energy harvesting for smart textiles 323
11.7 Conclusion 326
11.8 References 326
12 Signal processing technologies for activity- aware smart textiles 329
D. R OGGEN and G. T RÖSTER , ETH Zurich, Switzerland and A. B ULLING , University of Cambridge, UK
12.1 Introduction: from on- body sensing to smart assistants 329
12.2 Activity- aware applications 331
12.3 Sensing principles for activity recognition 332
12.4 Principles of activity recognition 339
12.5 Signal processing and pattern analysis 342
12.6 Experimental aspects 351
12.7 Future trends 356
12.8 Sources of further information and advice 357
12.9 Acknowledgements 358
12.10 Notes 358
12.11 References 358

Part III Product development and applications 367
13 Technology management and innovation strategies in the development of smart textiles 369
A. G ARLINSKA and A. R ÖPERT , Interactive Wear AG, Germany
13.1 Introduction 369
13.2 Fundamentals of innovation, technology and intellectual property management 370
13.3 Business models for smart textiles 382
13.4 Opportunities and challenges in the e- textiles business 388
13.5 Conclusion 393
13.6 Sources of further information and advice 394
13.7 References 397
14 Improving the sustainability of smart textiles 399
S. H. W. O SSEVOORT , Lucerne University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Switzerland
14.1 Introduction 399
14.2 Sustainable production of smart textiles 401
14.3 Recycling, a necessity 403
14.4 Product durability 407
14.5 Sustainable design approach for a smart-textile product, an example 411
14.6 General guidelines for the design of sustainable smart-textile products 416
14.7 References 416
15 Medical applications of smart textiles 420
S. C OYLE and D. D IAMOND , Dublin City University, Ireland
15.1 Introduction 420
15.2 Monitoring of body parameters 421
15.3 Challenges in medical smart textiles 432
15.4 Trends and applications of medical smart textiles 435
15.5 Conclusions 439
15.6 References 439
16 Automotive applications of smart textiles 444
M. W AGNER , Daimler AG, Germany
16.1 Introduction 444
16.2 The use of textiles in vehicles 445
16.3 Smart-textile applications and their potential for use in cars 449
16.4 Prototypes of smart-textiles applications in vehicles 451
16.5 Key safety and quality requirements 461
16.6 The impact of electric vehicles on smart-textiles applications 463
16.7 Future trends 465
16.8 References 466
17 Architectural applications of smart textiles 468
A. R ITTER , ritter architekten, Germany
17.1 Introduction: key themes in modern architecture 468
17.2 Smart materials 470
17.3 Applications 472
17.4 Future trends 481
17.5 References and further reading 487
Index 489

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