Smart Textiles for Protection Edited by R. A. Chapman

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Smart Textiles for Protection
Edited by R. A. Chapman
Smart Textiles for Protection

Contents
Contributor contact details xi
Woodhead Publishing Series in Textiles xv

Part I Smart materials and technologies 1
1 Smart textiles for protection: an overview 3
L. Van Langenhove, Ghent University, Belgium
1.1 Introduction 3
1.2 Smart textile functions for protection 7
1.3 European projects on smart protective textiles 15
1.4 Protective textiles and comfort 21
1.5 Other functions of smart textile systems 25
1.6 Systex – a European coordination action for enhancing the breakthrough of intelligent textile systems 27
1.7 References 30
2 Types of smart materials for protection 34
N. Finn, CSIRO Materials, Science and Engineering, Australia
2.1 Introduction: smart materials for protection 34
2.2 High-performance fi bres for protective textiles 35
2.3 Piezoelectric fi bres, phase-change materials, and shape memory fi bres 45
2.4 Woven and knitted structures for protective textiles 49
2.5 Nonwovens 56
2.6 Barrier fi lms and nanofi bre membranes 60
2.7 Carbon nanotubes 72
2.8 Conclusion and future trends 84
2.9 References 85
3 Smart surface treatments for textiles for protection 87
E. Shim, North Carolina State University, USA
3.1 Introduction: the role of surfaces in smart fabrics for protection 87
3.2 Surface grafting 92
3.3 Coating techniques 99
3.4 Other surface treatment methods 111
3.5 Conclusion and future trends 117
3.6 Sources of further information and advice 117
3.7 References 120
4 The use of nanomaterials in smart protective clothing 127
S. Sundarrajan, National University of Singapore, Singapore and S. Ramakrishna, National University of Singapore and Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, Singapore
4.1 Introduction 127
4.2 Conventional materials used in protective clothing 128
4.3 Use of nanoparticles in protective clothing 129
4.4 Use of electrospun nanofi bers and nanoparticles in protective clothing 131
4.5 Applications of nanoparticles in protective textiles 136
4.6 Smart textiles using nanoparticles 139
4.7 Chameleon fi bers 142
4.8 Conclusion and future trends 143
4.9 Sources of further information and advice 144
4.10 References 144
5 Smart barrier membranes for protective clothing 148
P. I. Dolez, École de Technologie Supérieure, Canada
5.1 Introduction 148
5.2 Principles and types of responsive barriers 154
5.3 Principles and types of self-decontaminating barriers 162
5.4 Advantages and challenges of responsive and selfdecontaminating barriers 174
5.5 Applications of responsive and self-decontaminating barriers 176
5.6 Conclusion and future trends 178
5.7 Sources of further information and advice 180
5.8 Acknowledgments 181
5.9 References 181
6 Sensors, actuators and computing systems for smart textiles for protection 190
G. R. Langereis, S. Bouwstra and W. Chen, Eindhoven
University of Technology, The Netherlands
6.1 Introduction 190
6.2 When textiles meet electronics 191
6.3 Sensors in textiles 193
6.4 Actuators in textiles 200
6.5 Power 202
6.6 Networks 204
6.7 Future trends 206
6.8 Design case study: neonatal monitoring 207
6.9 Sources of further information and advice 209
6.10 References 210
7 Biomimetic approaches to the design of smart textiles for protection 214
V. Kapsali, Northumbria University, UK (formerly at Middlesex University, UK)
7.1 Introduction: smart material design in nature 214
7.2 Biomimicry of smart protective textiles 217
7.3 Conclusion and future trends 224
7.4 Acknowledgements 225
7.5 References 225

Part II Applications of smart textiles for protection 227
8 Smart technology for personal protective equipment
and clothing 229
H. Cao, University of Delaware, USA
8.1 Introduction 229
8.2 Types of personal protective equipment and clothing 230
8.3 Applications of smart clothing in personal protective equipment 236
8.4 Conclusion and future trends 240
8.5 Sources of further information and advice 241
8.6 References 241
9 Smart protective textiles for older people 244
J. McCann, University of Wales, Newport, UK
9.1 Introduction 244
9.2 The demands of the changing body 245
9.3 The clothing layering system 250
9.4 Smart protective textiles for older people 253
9.5 Usability of the technology interface 268
9.6 Conclusion 272
9.7 Sources of further information and advice 273
9.8 References 273
10 Smart high-performance textiles for protection in construction and geotechnical applications 276
D. Zangani, D’Appolonia S.p.A., Italy
10.1 Introduction 276
10.2 Technical textiles for the construction and geotechnical sectors 277
10.3 Incorporating sensors into smart textiles through the use of optical fi bres 282
10.4 Applications of smart textiles in construction 287
10.5 Future trends: the Industrial Smart Materials Applications (ISMA) initiative 301
10.6 Sources of further information and advice 303
10.7 References 304
11 Smart textiles for the protection of armoured vehicles 306
S. Nauman, Institute of Space Technology, Pakistan,
I. Cristian, Technical University Gheorghe Asachi of
Ias¸i, Romania and F. Boussu and V. Koncar,
University of Lille, France
11.1 Introduction 306
11.2 Understanding impact behaviour 308
11.3 Bullet-proof textile composites for armoured vehicles 313
11.4 Using sensor networks in composites to measure impact behaviour and material performance in situ 320
11.5 Conclusion 333
11.6 Future trends 334
11.7 References 334
12 Protective clothing for fi refi ghters and rescue workers 338
C. Hertleer, S. Odhiambo and L. Van Langenhove,
Ghent University, Belgium
12.1 Introduction 338
12.2 The Protection e-Textiles (PROeTEX) project 339
12.3 Other fi refi ghter-related European projects 354
12.4 Simulation of the fi refi ghter market 358
12.5 The Viking fi re protection suit with built-in thermal sensor technology 359
12.6 The Tecknisolar fi refi ghter garment 361
12.7 Conclusion 362
12.8 References 363
13 Advances in chemical and biological protective clothing 364
Q. Truong and E. Wilusz, US Army, USA
13.1 Introduction 364
13.2 Current chemical and biological (CB) protective clothing 366
13.3 Materials for chemical and biological (CB) protective clothing 370
13.4 Technologies for next generation chemical and biological (CB) clothing 373
13.5 References 376
Index 379

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