Technical Textile Yarns: Industrial and Medical Applications Edited by R. Alagirusamy and A. Das

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Technical Textile Yarns: Industrial and Medical Applications
Edited by R. Alagirusamy and A. Das
Technical Textile Yarns

Contents
Contributor contact details xi
Woodhead Publishing series in Textiles xv

Part I Advances in textile yarn production
1 Introduction: types of technical textile yarn 3
R. Chattopadhyay, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, India
1.1 Introduction 3
1.2 Types of technical yarn 4
1.3 Yarn characteristics: continuous filament, staple, core spun, plied/folded, cabled and braided yarns 4
1.4 Yarn production: mono- and multifilament, tape, staple, core spun, folded and other yarns 9
1.5 Characterization of yarn: dimensional parameters, packing of fibres and twist 26
1.6 Structure of twisted yarn 32
1.7 Properties and performance of technical yarns 37
1.8 Properties of yarns: mono- and multifilament, tape, spun, wrap spun, core spun and plied/cord yarns 43
1.9 Applications of mono- and multifilament, tape, core spun, plied and cabled yarns 48
1.10 Market 53
1.11 References 54
2 Advances in yarn spinning and texturising 56
R. V. M. Gowda, V.S.B. Engineering College, India
2.1 Introduction to various yarn spinning technologies 56
2.2 Compact spinning 57
2.3 Rotor spinning 61
2.4 Friction spinning 67
2.5 Air-jet spinning 70
2.6 Vortex spinning 72
2.7 Core yarn spinning 74
2.8 Wrap spinning 80
2.9 Developing particular yarn properties 82
2.10 Yarn texturising: technologies, developments and applications 85
2.11 Future trends 89
2.12 References 89
3 Modification of textile yarn structures for functional applications 91
A. Das, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, India
3.1 Introduction 91
3.2 Modifying textile yarn structures by bulking 92
3.3 Modification of textile yarn structures by incorporating micro-pores 100
3.4 Twistless and hollow yarns 102
3.5 Future trends 110
3.6 References 110
4 Yarn hairiness and its reduction 112
A. Majumdar, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, India
4.1 Introduction 112
4.2 Factors influencing yarn hairiness 113
4.3 Yarn hairiness measurement 117
4.4 Importance of yarn hairiness 122
4.5 Modelling of yarn hairiness 125
4.6 Yarn hairiness reduction 128
4.7 Conclusions 137
4.8 Acknowledgement 137
4.9 References 137
5 Coatings for technical textile yarns 140
A. Jalal Uddin, Ahsanullah University of Science and
Technology, Bangladesh
5.1 Introduction 140
5.2 Textile coating and laminating 141
5.3 Coating formulations for technical textile yarns 144
5.4 Coating polymers for technical textile yarns 144
5.5 Choice of substrates for yarn coating 162
5.6 Principles of yarn coating 163
5.7 Methods and machinery for yarn coating 170
5.8 Applications and properties of some coated yarns 176
5.9 Future trends 182
5.10 References 183
6 Engineering finer and softer textile yarns 185
J. Srinivasan, Kumaraguru College of Technology, India
6.1 Introduction: importance of finer and softer yarns 185
6.2 Methods of engineering finer and softer yarns 186
6.3 Structure of fine yarns 201
6.4 Properties of fine yarns 203
6.5 Applications 204
6.6 Future trends 205
6.7 Sources of further information and advice 209
6.8 References 209
7 Assessing the weavability of technical yarns 215
B. K. Behera, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, India
7.1 Weavability of yarns 215
7.2 Importance of weavability in industrial fabrics 216
7.3 Factors influencing yarn weavability 216
7.4 Warp breakage mechanism 221
7.5 Analysis of warp breakage mechanism 223
7.6 Evaluation of weavability 223
7.7 Weavability of synthetic filament yarn 226
7.8 Sizing of micro-denier yarns for achieving desired weavability 229
7.9 Bibliography 230
8 Yarn imaging and advances in measuring yarn characteristics 232
R. Fangueiro and F. Soutinho, University of Minho, Portugal
8.1 Introduction 232
8.2 Image processing techniques in fibrous material structures 235
8.3 Yarn characterization 236
8.4 Special advances in measuring yarn characteristics 245
8.5 Online systems for measuring yarn quality 247
8.6 Future trends 254
8.7 Sources of further information and advice 254
8.8 References 255

Part II Types of technical yarns
9 Novel technical textile yarns 259
A. Jalal Uddin, Ahsanullah University of Science and Technology, Bangladesh
9.1 Introduction 259
9.2 Reflective yarns 259
9.3 UV protected yarns 266
9.4 Metallic and metalloplastic yarns 273
9.5 Antimicrobial yarns 282
9.6 Yarns for specific purposes 287
9.7 Future trends 292
9.8 References 293
10 Electro-conductive textile yarns 298
M. Latifi, P. Payvandy and M. Yousefzadeh-Chimeh,
Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Iran
10.1 Introduction 298
10.2 Manufacture and structure of electro-conductive yarns 299
10.3 Measurements 309
10.4 Applications 313
10.5 Future trends 316
10.6 References 326
11 High modulus, high tenacity yarns 329
H. Hu and Y. Liu, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University,
Hong Kong
11.1 Introduction 329
11.2 Glass fibers and yarns 330
11.3 Carbon fibers and yarns 345
11.4 Ceramic fibers and yarns 360
11.5 Basalt fibers and yarns 365
11.6 Aramid fibers and yarns 370
11.7 High-performance polyethylene (HPPE) fibers and yarns 378
11.8 Sources of further information and advice 382
11.9 References 384
12 Hybrid yarns for thermoplastic composites 387
R. Alagirusamy, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, India
12.1 Introduction 387
12.2 Types of hybrid yarns 389
12.3 Characterization of hybrid yarns 400
12.4 Manufacture of thermoplastic composites with hybrid yarns 405
12.5 Compaction and consolidation of hybrid yarns 407
12.6 Hybird yarn structure – composite property relations 413
12.7 Potential application areas of thermoplastic composites 421
12.8 Trends in thermoplastic composite applications 422
12.9 References 426
13 Shape memory polymer yarns 429
T . Wan, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, P. R. China
13.1 Introduction 429
13.2 Thermo-mechanical behaviour of shape memory polymers (SMPs) 431
13.3 Manufacture of shape memory polymer (SMP)-based yarns 434
13.4 Applications 437
13.5 Future trends 444
13.6 Conclusion 448
13.7 References 448
14 Plasma-treated yarns for biomedical applications 452
B. Gupta, S. Saxena, N. Grover and A. R. Ray, Indian
Institute of Technology, Delhi, India
14.1 Introduction 452
14.2 Chemistry of plasma processing 457
14.3 Biomedical applications 468
14.4 Conclusions 487
14.5 References 488
15 Technical sewing threads 495
R. S. Rengasamy and S. Ghosh, Indian Institute of
Technology, Delhi, India
15.1 Introduction 495
15.2 Industrial sewing threads 495
15.3 Surgical threads/sutures for medical applications 513
15.4 References 532
16 Biodegradable textile yarns 534
S. Mukopadhyay, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, India
16.1 Introduction: principles and importance of sustainable yarns 534
16.2 Fibres from biodegradable polymers of natural origins 536
16.3 Spinning of PLA polymers 537
16.4 Electrospinning 548
16.5 Fibres from biodegradable polymers from mineral origins 551
16.6 Applications of biodegradable fibres/yarns 560
16.7 Conclusion 564
16.8 References 565
17 Yarn and fancy yarn design using three-dimensional
computer graphics and visualisation techniques 568
W. Tang, University of Teesside, UK and T. R. Wan, University of Bradford, UK
17.1 Introduction 568
17.2 3D computer graphics and visualisation technologies for cloths and yarns 570
17.3 Microstructures of yarns and fancy yarns 573
17.4 Mathematical modelling of yarn and fancy yarn structures 573
17.5 Descriptions of a computer aided design (CAD) system for yarn and fancy yarn structures 579
17.6 Conclusion 583
17.7 References 585
Index 586

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