Textiles and Fashion: Materials, Design and Technology Edited by Rose Sinclair

9:22 PM
Textiles and Fashion: Materials, Design and Technology
Edited by Rose Sinclair
Textiles and Fashion: Materials, Design and Technology

Contents
Contributors ....................................................................................................xxxi
Woodhead Publishing Series in Textiles ............................................................ xxxiii
Preface ................................................................................................................... xli
Acknowledgements ................................................................................................ xlv
How to Use this Book ....................................................................................... xlvii
PART 1 FIBRE TYPES
CHAPTER 1 Understanding Textile Fibres and
Their Properties: What is a Textile Fibre? .......................................3
Learning Objectives .....................................................................................................3
1.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................................3
1.2 Types of Textile Fibres ................................................................................................4
1.3 Fibres, Yarns and Fabrics .............................................................................................7
1.4 Fibre Properties ............................................................................................................9
1.5 Fibre Length, Shape and Diameter ............................................................................10
1.6 Fibre Colour and Lustre .............................................................................................12
1.7 Fibre Fineness ............................................................................................................13
1.7.1 Fibres ................................................................................................................13
1.7.2 Yarns ..................................................................................................................13
1.7.3 Fabrics ...............................................................................................................14
1.8 Fibre Strength, Flexibility and Abrasion Resistance .................................................15
1.8.1 Tensile Strength and Extension (Elongation) ...................................................15
1.8.2 Flexibility or Stiffness ......................................................................................16
1.8.3 Elasticity ...........................................................................................................18
1.8.4 Resiliency .........................................................................................................18
1.8.5 Abrasion Resistance ..........................................................................................18
1.9 Moisture Absorbency .................................................................................................18
1.10 Electrical Properties of Fibres ...................................................................................19
1.11 Thermal Properties of Fibres .....................................................................................20
1.12 Chemical Reactivity and Resistance ..........................................................................22
1.13 Case Studies: From Fibre Properties to Textile Products ..........................................22
1.13.1 Case Study 1: Choosing Apparel Fibres .........................................................22
1.13.2 Case Study 2: Microfibres ..............................................................................24
1.14 Summary ....................................................................................................................24
1.15 Project Ideas ...............................................................................................................24
1.16 Revision Questions ....................................................................................................25
References and Further Reading ................................................................................25
CHAPTER 2 Natural Textile Fibres: Vegetable Fibres .......................................29
Learning Objectives ...................................................................................................29
2.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................29
2.1.1 Molecular Composition of Cellulose ................................................................29
2.1.2 Common Properties of Vegetable Fibres ..........................................................30
2.2 Cotton ........................................................................................................................31
2.2.1 Definitions and Types of Cotton .......................................................................31
2.2.2 Cultivation and Ginning ....................................................................................31
2.2.3 Structure of Cotton ...........................................................................................32
2.2.4 Composition of Cotton .....................................................................................32
2.2.5 Physical Properties of Cotton ...........................................................................34
2.2.6 Measurement of Fibre Properties ......................................................................36
2.2.7 Cotton Application in Textile ............................................................................39
2.3 Other Seed Fibres ......................................................................................................40
2.3.1 Kapok ................................................................................................................40
2.3.2 Coir ...................................................................................................................42
2.4 Bast Fibre ...................................................................................................................43
2.4.1 Flax ...................................................................................................................43
2.5 Other Bast Fibres .......................................................................................................46
2.5.1 Ramie ................................................................................................................46
2.5.2 Jute ....................................................................................................................48
2.5.3 Kenaf .................................................................................................................50
2.5.4 Hemp .................................................................................................................50
2.5.5 Sisal, Abaca, and Pineapple Fibre .....................................................................51
2.6 Sustainability Issues/Eco Issues ................................................................................52
2.6.1 Biotech Cotton ..................................................................................................52
2.6.2 Organic Cotton ..................................................................................................52
2.6.3 Naturally Coloured Cotton ...............................................................................52
2.6.4 Bast Fibres ........................................................................................................54
2.7 Case Studies ...............................................................................................................54
2.8 Future Trends .............................................................................................................55
2.9 Summary ....................................................................................................................55
2.10 Project Ideas ...............................................................................................................55
2.11 Revision Questions ....................................................................................................56
References .................................................................................................................. 56
CHAPTER 3 Natural Textile Fibres: Animal and Silk Fibres ..............................57
Learning Objectives ...................................................................................................57
3.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................57
3.2 Wool Fibres ................................................................................................................58
3.2.1 Structure of Wool ..............................................................................................58
3.2.2 Amino Acid Composition .................................................................................59
3.2.3 Properties of Wool Fibres .................................................................................61
3.2.4 Applications ......................................................................................................62
3.3 Silk Fibres ..................................................................................................................62
3.3.1 Sericulture and Cocoon Production ..................................................................63
3.3.2 Silk Reeling ......................................................................................................64
3.3.3 Silk Manufacture ..............................................................................................65
3.3.4 Fine Structure of Silk ........................................................................................66
3.3.5 Amino Acid Composition .................................................................................67
3.3.6 Properties of Silk Fibres ...................................................................................68
3.3.7 Applications ......................................................................................................70
3.4 Other Specialty Hair Fibres .......................................................................................71
3.4.1 Cashmere Fibres ...............................................................................................71
3.4.2 Camel Hair Fibres .............................................................................................72
3.4.3 Mohair Fibres ....................................................................................................73
3.5 Applications of Natural Protein Fibres ......................................................................74
3.6 Sustainability and Ecological Issues ..........................................................................75
3.7 Future Trends .............................................................................................................75
3.8 Summary ....................................................................................................................76
3.9 Project Ideas ...............................................................................................................77
3.10 Revision Questions ....................................................................................................77
References .................................................................................................................. 77
CHAPTER 4 Synthetic Textile Fibers: Regenerated Cellulose Fibers .................79
Learning Objectives ...................................................................................................79
4.1 Introduction ...............................................................................................................79
4.2 Viscose Rayon ...........................................................................................................81
4.2.1 The History of Viscose Rayon ..........................................................................81
4.2.2 Viscose Rayon Production ................................................................................82
4.2.3 Viscose Fiber Appearance .................................................................................83
4.2.4 Viscose Fiber Mechanical Properties ................................................................85
4.2.5 Viscose Rayon Physical Properties ...................................................................85
4.3 Lyocell Rayon ............................................................................................................85
4.3.1 The History of Lyocell Rayon ..........................................................................85
4.3.2 Lyocell Rayon Production ................................................................................86
4.3.3 Lyocell Fiber Appearance .................................................................................87
4.3.4 Lyocell Fiber Mechanical Properties ................................................................87
4.3.5 Lyocell Fiber Physical Properties .....................................................................89
4.4 Cellulose Acetate .......................................................................................................89
4.5 Applications ...............................................................................................................90
4.6 Case Study .................................................................................................................91
4.7 Future Trends .............................................................................................................92
4.8 Summary ....................................................................................................................93
4.9 Project Ideas ...............................................................................................................93
4.10 Revision Questions ....................................................................................................94
References ..................................................................................................................94
CHAPTER 5 Synthetic Textile Fibres: Polyamide, Polyester
and Aramid Fibres ......................................................................97
Learning Objectives ...................................................................................................97
5.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................97
5.2 Classification of Fibres ..............................................................................................98
5.3 Polyamide Fibres .......................................................................................................99
5.3.1 Production of Nylon .........................................................................................99
5.3.2 Structure and Properties of Nylon Fibres .......................................................100
5.3.3 Applications ....................................................................................................101
5.4 Polyester Fibres .......................................................................................................103
5.4.1 Production of PET Polyester ..........................................................................103
5.4.2 PET Fibre Formation ......................................................................................103
5.4.3 Structure and Properties of Polyester Fibre ....................................................104
5.4.4 Applications ....................................................................................................105
5.5 Aramid Fibres ..........................................................................................................106
5.5.1 Production of Aramid Fibres ..........................................................................106
5.5.2 Structure and Properties of Aramid Fibres .....................................................108
5.5.3 Applications ....................................................................................................109
5.6 Blended Fibres: Key Issues .....................................................................................109
5.7 Case Study: Polyester Fibres for Apparel and Clothing Applications .....................110
5.8 Future Trends ...........................................................................................................112
5.9 Summary ..................................................................................................................112
5.10 Project Ideas .............................................................................................................113
5.11 Revision Questions ..................................................................................................113
5.12 Sources of Further Information and Advice ............................................................113
References ................................................................................................................114
CHAPTER 6 Synthetic Textile Fibres: Polyolefin, Elastomeric and Acrylic
Fibres .......................................................................................115
Learning Objectives .................................................................................................115
6.1 Introduction ..............................................................................................................115
6.2 Polypropylene (PP) Fibres .......................................................................................116
6.2.1 Production of Polypropylene (PP) ..................................................................116
6.2.2 Fibre Manufacture ..........................................................................................116
6.2.3 Types of Yarns .................................................................................................117
6.2.4 Spin Finishes ...................................................................................................118
6.2.5 Additives .........................................................................................................119
6.2.6 Fibre Structure ................................................................................................119
6.2.7 Fibre Properties ...............................................................................................122
6.2.8 Applications ....................................................................................................122
6.3 Other Polyolefin Fibres ............................................................................................123
6.4 Acrylic Fibres ..........................................................................................................123
6.4.1 Production of Acrylic Fibres ...........................................................................125
6.4.2 Fibre Manufacture ..........................................................................................126
6.4.3 Fibre Structure ................................................................................................127
6.4.4 Acrylic Fibre Variants .....................................................................................128
6.4.5 Fibre Properties ...............................................................................................128
6.4.6 Applications ....................................................................................................129
6.5 Modacrylic Fibres ....................................................................................................129
6.6 Elastomeric Fibres ...................................................................................................129
6.6.1 Elastane Fibres ................................................................................................130
6.6.2 Fibre Manufacture ..........................................................................................131
6.6.3 Fibre Structure ................................................................................................131
6.6.4 Fibre Properties ...............................................................................................131
6.6.5 Applications ....................................................................................................132
6.7 Case Study: Why Are There So Many End-Uses for
Polypropylene (PP) Fibres, But So Few in Apparel? ..............................................133
6.8 Future Trends ...........................................................................................................133
6.8.1 Polyolefin Fibres .............................................................................................134
6.8.2 Acrylic Fibres ..................................................................................................135
6.8.3 Elastomeric Fibres ..........................................................................................135
6.9 Summary ..................................................................................................................135
6.10 Project Ideas .............................................................................................................136
6.11 Revision Questions ..................................................................................................136
6.12 Sources of Further Information and Advice ............................................................137
References ................................................................................................................137
CHAPTER 7 Synthetic Textile Fibres: Non-Polymer Fibres ..............................139
Learning Objectives .................................................................................................139
7.1 Introduction ..............................................................................................................139
7.2 Carbon Fibres ...........................................................................................................139
7.2.1 Manufacture ....................................................................................................140
7.2.2 Structure ..........................................................................................................142
7.2.3 Properties ........................................................................................................143
7.2.4 Applications ....................................................................................................147
7.3 Glass Fibres .............................................................................................................147
7.3.1 Manufacture ....................................................................................................147
7.3.2 Structure ..........................................................................................................148
7.3.3 Properties ........................................................................................................148
7.3.4 Applications ....................................................................................................148
7.4 Metallic Fibres .........................................................................................................149
7.4.1 Manufacture ....................................................................................................149
7.4.2 Basic Structure and Properties ........................................................................150
7.4.3 Applications ....................................................................................................150
7.5 Ceramic Fibres .........................................................................................................152
7.5.1 Manufacture ....................................................................................................152
7.5.2 Basic Structure and Properties ........................................................................152
7.5.3 Applications ....................................................................................................152
7.6 Case Study: The Use of CFRP in Sporting Goods ..................................................153
7.7 Future Trends ...........................................................................................................153
7.8 Summary Points .......................................................................................................153
7.9 Project Ideas .............................................................................................................154
7.10 Revision Questions ..................................................................................................154
References and Further Reading ..............................................................................154
PART 2 MANUFACTURING TEXTILES: YARN TO FABRIC
CHAPTER 8 Conversion of Fibre to Yarn: an Overview ...................................159
Learning Objectives .................................................................................................159
8.1 Introduction ..............................................................................................................159
8.2 Classification of Yarns .............................................................................................159
8.2.1 Staple Yarns .....................................................................................................159
8.2.2 Continuous-Filament Yarns .............................................................................159
8.2.3 Novelty Yarns ..................................................................................................160
8.2.4 Industrial Yarns ...............................................................................................161
8.2.5 High-Bulk Yarns .............................................................................................161
8.2.6 Stretch Yarns ...................................................................................................161
8.3 Staple-Fibre Yarns ....................................................................................................161
8.3.1 Spinning Methods ...........................................................................................161
8.3.2 Operations in Staple-Fibre Spinning ..............................................................162
8.3.3 Yarn Structure .................................................................................................162
8.3.4 Applications of Staple-Spun Yarns .................................................................164
8.4 Filament Yarns .........................................................................................................164
8.4.1 Spinning Methods ...........................................................................................164
8.4.2 Polymer Spinning Processes ...........................................................................165
8.4.3 Structures of Continuous Filament Yarns .......................................................166
8.4.4 Applications of Filament Yarn ........................................................................168
8.5 Fancy Yarns ..............................................................................................................170
8.5.1 Marl Yarn ........................................................................................................170
8.5.2 Spiral or Corkscrew Yarn ................................................................................170
8.5.3 Gimp Yarn .....................................................................................................170
8.5.4 Diamond Yarn ...............................................................................................171
8.5.5 Boucle Yarn ...................................................................................................171
8.5.6 Loop Yarn .....................................................................................................171
8.5.7 Snarl Yarn .....................................................................................................172
8.5.8 Knop Yarn .....................................................................................................172
8.5.9 Slub Yarn .......................................................................................................173
8.5.10 Fasciated Yarn ...............................................................................................173
8.5.11 Tape Yarn ......................................................................................................174
8.5.12 Chainette Yarn ...............................................................................................174
8.5.13 Chenille Yarn .................................................................................................174
8.5.14 Ribbon Yarns .................................................................................................175
8.5.15 Composite Yarns ...........................................................................................175
8.5.16 Covered Yarns ...............................................................................................175
8.5.17 Metallic Yarns ...............................................................................................176
8.6 Staple-Fibre Yarn Manufacturing ............................................................................176
8.6.1 Ring (Conventional) Spinning ......................................................................176
8.6.2 Hollow-Spindle Spinning .............................................................................178
8.6.3 Combined Systems .......................................................................................178
8.6.4 The Doubling System ...................................................................................180
8.6.5 Open-End Spinning ......................................................................................182
8.6.6 Air-Jet Spinning ............................................................................................184
8.6.7 The Chenille Yarn System ............................................................................185
8.6.8 Flocking ........................................................................................................186
8.6.9 Mock Chenille ..............................................................................................186
8.7 Future Trends ...........................................................................................................187
8.8 Summary ..................................................................................................................187
8.9 Project Ideas .............................................................................................................188
8.10 Revision Questions ..................................................................................................188
References ................................................................................................................189
CHAPTER 9 Fibre to Yarn: Staple-Yarn Spinning ...........................................191
Learning Objectives .................................................................................................191
9.1 Introduction ..............................................................................................................191
9.2 Preparation of Cotton and Other Short Staple Fibres ..............................................192
9.2.1 Opening and Cleaning ..................................................................................192
9.2.2 Blending .......................................................................................................193
9.2.3 Carding .........................................................................................................195
9.2.4 Combing .......................................................................................................195
9.2.5 Drawing ........................................................................................................196
9.2.6 Roving ..........................................................................................................196
9.3 Preparation of Wool and Other Long Staple Fibres: The Woollen System ...........196
9.3.1 Opening ........................................................................................................198
9.3.2 Scouring and Carbonising ............................................................................198
9.3.3 Drying or Oiling ...........................................................................................198
9.3.4 Blending .......................................................................................................198
9.3.5 Carding .........................................................................................................199
9.4 Preparation of Wool and Other Long Staple Fibres: The Worsted System ...........199
9.4.1 Carding .........................................................................................................200
9.4.2 Gilling ..........................................................................................................200
9.4.3 Combing .......................................................................................................201
9.5 Spinning Techniques for Staple Fibres .................................................................201
9.5.1 Ring Spinning ..............................................................................................202
9.5.2 Twist-Spinning Methods: Open-End (Rotor and Friction) Spinning
and Self-Twist Spinning ...............................................................................204
9.5.3 Open-End Spinning: Rotor Spinning ...........................................................205
9.5.4 Open-End Spinning: Friction Spinning .......................................................206
9.5.5 Self-Twist Spinning ......................................................................................208
9.6 Wrap-Spinning Techniques ...................................................................................208
9.6.1 Air-Jet Spinning ...........................................................................................208
9.6.2 Filament Wrapping Techniques ...................................................................210
9.7 Future Trends ........................................................................................................210
9.8 Summary Points ....................................................................................................210
9.9 Project Ideas ..........................................................................................................211
9.10 Revision Questions ...............................................................................................211
9.10.1 Cotton System ............................................................................................211
9.10.2 Wool System ..............................................................................................212
References and Further Reading ...........................................................................212
CHAPTER 10 Fibre to Yarn: Filament Yarn Spinning ......................................213
Learning Objectives ..............................................................................................213
10.1 Introduction ...........................................................................................................213
10.1.1 Definitions ..................................................................................................213
10.1.2 Classification of CF Yarns ..........................................................................214
10.1.3 Yarn Count System .....................................................................................215
10.2 Fibre-Extrusion Spinning ......................................................................................216
10.2.1 Melt-Spinning ............................................................................................216
10.2.2 Wet Spinning ..............................................................................................219
10.2.3 Dry Spinning ..............................................................................................221
10.3 Yarn Texturing .......................................................................................................222
10.3.1 False-Twist Texturing .................................................................................224
10.3.2 Air-Jet Texturing ........................................................................................229
10.4 Bulk Continuous Fibre (BCF) Technology ...........................................................231
10.4.1 Twisting/Plying of Continuous-Filament Yarns .........................................231
10.4.2 Metallised Yarns .........................................................................................233
10.5 Properties of CF Yarns ..........................................................................................234
10.5.1 Morphology ................................................................................................234
10.5.2 Tensile Properties .......................................................................................237
10.6 Adding Functionality to Yarn ................................................................................242
10.6.1 Moisture Absorption ..................................................................................242
10.6.2 Dyeability and Printability .........................................................................243
10.6.3 Functional Additives ..................................................................................246
10.7 Applications ..........................................................................................................247
10.8 Future Trends ........................................................................................................250
10.9 Project Ideas ..........................................................................................................251
10.10 Revision Questions ...............................................................................................251
References .............................................................................................................251
CHAPTER 11 Yarn to Fabric: Weaving ..........................................................255
Learning Objectives ..............................................................................................255
11.1 Introduction ...........................................................................................................255
11.2 Looms ...................................................................................................................255
11.2.1 Rigid Heddle Loom ....................................................................................256
11.2.2 Table Loom ................................................................................................256
11.2.3 Floor/Treddle Loom ...................................................................................257
11.2.4 Counterbalanced Loom ..............................................................................258
11.2.5 Dobby Loom ..............................................................................................258
11.2.6 Computerised Loom ...................................................................................259
11.2.7 Jacquard Loom ...........................................................................................260
11.3 Making a Warp and Dressing the Loom ...............................................................260
11.3.1 Selecting a Warp Yarn ................................................................................260
11.3.2 Calculating the Warp Yarns ........................................................................260
11.3.3 Making the Warp ........................................................................................261
11.3.4 Making a Chain ..........................................................................................261
11.3.5 Dressing the Loom .....................................................................................262
11.4 Documentation ......................................................................................................266
11.4.1 Point Paper .................................................................................................267
11.4.2 Threading Plan ...........................................................................................267
11.4.3 Lifting Plan ................................................................................................267
11.4.4 Reed Plan ...................................................................................................268
11.5 Pattern Drafting .....................................................................................................268
11.5.1 Straight Draft .............................................................................................268
11.5.2 Pointed Draft ..............................................................................................268
11.5.3 Block Draft .................................................................................................270
11.5.4 Scattered Draft ...........................................................................................271
11.6 Weave Structures ...................................................................................................271
11.6.1 Balanced and Unbalanced Weave Structures .............................................271
11.6.2 Balanced Plain Weave ................................................................................271
11.6.3 Unbalanced Plain Weave ............................................................................272
11.6.4 Basket Weave .............................................................................................272
11.6.5 Twill Weaves ..............................................................................................272
11.6.6 Herringbone Twill ......................................................................................274
11.6.7 Satin Weave ................................................................................................275
11.7 Derivative-Weave Structures ................................................................................276
11.7.1 Mock Leno .................................................................................................276
11.7.2 Double Weave ............................................................................................276
11.7.3 Honeycomb ................................................................................................278
11.7.4 Jacquard Weaves ........................................................................................278
11.8 Starting to Weave ..................................................................................................279
11.9 Designing for Woven Textiles ...............................................................................279
11.10 Designing for the Jacquard Loom .........................................................................280
11.11 Tapestry Weaving ..................................................................................................281
11.12 Case Study: Honeycomb Woven Structures .........................................................283
11.13 Finishing ...............................................................................................................283
11.14 Tips for Weaving ...................................................................................................284
11.15 Future Trends ........................................................................................................284
11.16 Summary ...............................................................................................................285
11.17 Revision Questions ...............................................................................................286
11.18 Sources of Further Information and Advice ..........................................................286
11.18.1 Collections ...............................................................................................286
Further Reading ....................................................................................................286
CHAPTER 12 Yarn to Fabric: Knitting ...........................................................289
Learning Objectives ..............................................................................................289
12.1 Introduction ...........................................................................................................289
12.2 Loop Formation ....................................................................................................290
12.3 Knitting Terminology ............................................................................................291
12.4 Weft-Knitted Structures ........................................................................................292
12.4.1 Weft-Knitting Machines .............................................................................293
12.5 Warp Knitted Structures ........................................................................................294
12.5.1 Warp Knitting Machines ............................................................................295
12.6 Knitting Developments .........................................................................................296
12.7 The Impact of Computers in Design and Technology ..........................................298
12.8 Quality Control .....................................................................................................299
12.9 Case Study ............................................................................................................300
12.10 Future Trends ........................................................................................................301
12.11 Summary ...............................................................................................................302
12.12 Project Ideas ..........................................................................................................303
12.13 Revision Questions ...............................................................................................303
12.14 Sources of Further Information and Advice ..........................................................304
References .............................................................................................................305
CHAPTER 13 Fibre to Fabric: Nonwoven Fabrics ...........................................307
Learning Objectives ..............................................................................................307
13.1 Introduction ...........................................................................................................307
13.2 Technologies for the Formation of Nonwoven Fabrics ........................................308
13.2.1 Fibrous Web Formation ..............................................................................309
13.2.2 Web Bonding Technologies .......................................................................310
13.2.3 Nonwoven Fabric Finishing and Converting Techniques ..........................312
13.2.4 Coating and Laminating .............................................................................314
13.3 Characteristics of Nonwoven Fabric Structure and Properties .............................315
13.3.1 Characterisation of Fabric Bond Structure .................................................315
13.3.2 Nonwoven Fabric Structural Parameters ....................................................322
13.4 Properties and Performance of Nonwoven Fabrics ..............................................327
13.5 Methods for the Evaluation of Nonwoven Fabric Structure, Properties
and Performance ...................................................................................................328
13.5.1 Standard Test Methods for the Evaluation of the Structure and
Properties of Nonwoven Fabrics ................................................................328
13.5.2 Standards for the Evaluation of the Performance of Nonwoven Products ...328
13.6 Nonwoven Fabrics and Their Applications ...........................................................329
13.7 Nonwoven Fabrics in Fashion ..............................................................................330
13.8 Future Trends ........................................................................................................332
13.9 Project Ideas ..........................................................................................................332
13.10 Revision Questions ...............................................................................................332
13.11 Sources of Further Information .............................................................................333
References .............................................................................................................333
CHAPTER 14 Yarn to Fabric: Specialist Fabric Structures .............................337
Learning Objectives ..............................................................................................337
14.1 Introduction ...........................................................................................................337
14.2 Triaxial Fabrics .....................................................................................................337
14.3 Pile Fabrics ............................................................................................................339
14.4 Knotted Fabrics .....................................................................................................341
14.4.1 Nets ............................................................................................................341
14.4.2 Macrame ....................................................................................................341
14.4.3 Lace ............................................................................................................342
14.4.4 Crochet .......................................................................................................342
14.4.5 Knotting .....................................................................................................342
14.5 Braided Fabrics .....................................................................................................344
14.6 Three-Dimensional Fabrics and Future Developments ........................................346
14.6.1 3D Solid Structures ....................................................................................346
14.6.2 Hollow Structures ......................................................................................347
14.6.3 Shell Structures ..........................................................................................348
14.6.4 Knitted Structures ......................................................................................349
14.6.5 Nonwoven Structures .................................................................................350
14.7 Summary ...............................................................................................................352
14.8 Project Ideas ..........................................................................................................352
14.9 Revision Questions ...............................................................................................352
References and Sources of Further Information ...................................................353
CHAPTER 15 Yarn to Fabric: Intelligent Textiles ...........................................355
Learning Objectives ..............................................................................................355
15.1 Introduction ...........................................................................................................355
15.2 What Are Intelligent Textiles Used For? ...............................................................356
15.2.1 Smart Textile Applications .........................................................................357
15.2.2 Research and Development of Smart Textiles ...........................................359
15.2.3 Phase Change Materials .............................................................................360
15.2.4 Shape Memory Materials ...........................................................................363
15.2.5 Chromic and Conductive Materials ...........................................................365
15.2.6 Stress-Responsive Materials ......................................................................367
15.2.7 Wearable Electronics ..................................................................................367
15.3 Case Study: Biomimetics and Intelligent Textiles ................................................368
15.3.1 Examples of Biomimetic Products .............................................................368
15.3.2 The Lotus Effect .........................................................................................368
15.4 Future Trends ........................................................................................................369
15.4.1 Future Applications of Intelligent Textiles .................................................369
15.4.2 Future Market Development ......................................................................372
15.5 Summary ...............................................................................................................373
15.6 Project Ideas ..........................................................................................................374
15.7 Revision Questions ...............................................................................................375
15.8 Sources of Further Information and Advice ..........................................................375
References and Further Reading ...........................................................................375
PART 3 FABRIC FINISHING AND APPLICATIONS
CHAPTER 16 Fabric Finishing: Joining Fabrics Using Stitched Seams ............379
Learning Objectives ..............................................................................................379
16.1 Introduction ...........................................................................................................379
16.2 The Stitch ..............................................................................................................380
16.2.1 Class 100 Chain Stitches ............................................................................380
16.2.2 Class 300 Lockstitches ...............................................................................381
16.2.3 Class 400 Multi-Thread Chain Stitches .....................................................381
16.2.4 Class 500 Overedge Stitches ......................................................................382
16.2.5 Stitch Quality .............................................................................................382
16.3 The Seam ..............................................................................................................382
16.3.1 Class 1: Superimposed Seams ...................................................................384
16.3.2 Class 2: Double-Lap Seams .......................................................................385
16.3.3 Class 3: Bound Seams ................................................................................385
16.3.4 Class 4: Flat Seams ....................................................................................385
16.4 Sewing Machines ..................................................................................................385
16.4.1 The Needle .................................................................................................390
16.4.2 Machine Feeding Systems .........................................................................394
16.4.3 Machines for Different Stitching Operations .............................................400
16.5 Seam Quality Problems .........................................................................................402
16.5.1 Pucker .........................................................................................................402
16.5.2 Thread Breakage ........................................................................................405
16.6 Future Trends ........................................................................................................405
16.7 Summary ...............................................................................................................409
16.8 Case Study and Project Idea .................................................................................409
16.9 Revision Questions ...............................................................................................410
References and Further Reading ...........................................................................410
CHAPTER 17 Joining Fabrics: Fastenings .....................................................413
Learning Objectives ..............................................................................................413
17.1 Introduction ...........................................................................................................413
17.2 Zips .......................................................................................................................413
17.2.1 Components of a Zip ..................................................................................415
17.2.2 Zip Functions and Applications .................................................................416
17.2.3 How to Measure the Correct Length of Opening for a Zip ........................416
17.2.4 Machinery and Attachments Used to Apply Zips ......................................419
17.2.5 Continuous Zips .........................................................................................419
17.2.6 Safety Standards and Legislation for Selecting and
Applying Zips ............................................................................................419
17.3 Buttons ..................................................................................................................422
17.3.1 Types of Buttons ........................................................................................423
17.3.2 Materials Used to Make Buttons ................................................................425
17.3.3 How to Measure Buttons ............................................................................425
17.3.4 Machinery and Attachments Used to Apply Buttons .................................425
17.3.5 Safety Standards and Legislation for Selecting and Applying
Buttons .......................................................................................................431
17.4 Hook-and-Loop Fasteners .....................................................................................432
17.4.1 Types of Hook-and-Loop Tapes .................................................................433
17.4.2 Materials Used to Make Hook-and-Loop Tape ..........................................434
17.4.3 Machinery and Attachments Used to Apply Hook-and-Loop Tape ...........434
17.4.4 Safety Standards and Legislation for Selecting and Applying
Hook-and-Loop Tape .................................................................................434
17.5 Press Fasteners ......................................................................................................435
17.5.1 Types of Press Fasteners ............................................................................436
17.5.2 Materials Used to Make Press Fasteners ....................................................437
17.5.3 Machinery and Attachments Used to Apply Press Fasteners .....................439
17.5.4 Other Non-Snap Components ....................................................................442
17.5.5 Safety Standards and Legislation for Selecting and Applying Press
Fasteners .....................................................................................................442
17.6 Cords, Ties and Belts ............................................................................................446
17.6.1 Materials Used to Make Cords, Ties and Belt Fastenings .........................446
17.6.2 Machinery and Attachments Used to Apply Cords, Ties and Belts ...........447
17.6.3 Safety Standards and Legislation for Selecting and Applying Cords,
Ties and Belts .............................................................................................448
17.7 Hook-and-Eye Fasteners .......................................................................................448
17.7.1 Types of Hook-and-Eye Fasteners .............................................................449
17.7.2 Materials Used to Make Hooks and Eyes ..................................................449
17.7.3 Machinery and Attachments Used to Apply Hooks and Eyes ...................450
17.7.4 Safety Standards and Legislation for Selecting and Applying Hooks
and Eyes .....................................................................................................450
17.8 Hook-and-Bar Fasteners .......................................................................................451
17.8.1 Types of Hook-and-Bar Fasteners ..............................................................451
17.8.2 Materials Used to Make Hooks and Bars ...................................................452
17.8.3 Machinery and Attachments Used to Apply Hooks and
Bar/Fasteners ..............................................................................................453
17.8.4 Safety Standards and Legislation for Selecting and Applying Hooks
and Bar/Fasteners .......................................................................................453
17.9 Buckles and Adjustable Fasteners .........................................................................454
17.9.1 Types of Buckles and Adjustable Fasteners ...............................................454
17.9.2 Materials Used to Make Buckles and Adjustable Fasteners ......................454
17.9.3 Machinery and Attachments Used to Apply Buckles and Adjustable
Fasteners .....................................................................................................455
17.9.4 Safety Standards and Legislation for Selecting and Applying Buckles
and Adjustable Fasteners ............................................................................455
17.10 Summary ...............................................................................................................456
17.11 Project Ideas ..........................................................................................................456
17.12 Revision Questions ...............................................................................................457
17.13 Sources of Further Information .............................................................................457
References and Further Reading ...........................................................................457
CHAPTER 18 Fabric Finishing: Pretreatment / Textile Wet Processing .............459
Learning Objectives ..............................................................................................459
18.1 Introduction ...........................................................................................................459
18.2 Processing Methods ..............................................................................................460
18.3 Fabric Preparation Processes ................................................................................461
18.3.1 Desizing .....................................................................................................461
18.3.2 Scouring .....................................................................................................462
18.3.3 Bleaching ...................................................................................................463
18.3.4 Mercerization .............................................................................................464
18.3.5 Carbonization .............................................................................................465
18.3.6 Heat Setting ................................................................................................465
18.3.7 Drying ........................................................................................................465
18.4 Quality Control in Fabric Preparation ...................................................................466
18.5 Environmental Impact and Sustainability of Fabric Preparation ..........................467
18.6 Research and Future Trends ..................................................................................467
18.7 Summary ...............................................................................................................468
18.8 Case Study ............................................................................................................468
18.9 Project Ideas ..........................................................................................................469
18.10 Revision Questions ...............................................................................................469
18.11 Sources of Further Information .............................................................................469
References .............................................................................................................469
CHAPTER 19 Fabric Finishing: Dyeing and Colouring ....................................475
Learning Objectives ..............................................................................................475
19.1 Introduction ...........................................................................................................475
19.2 Colour Theory .......................................................................................................475
19.2.1 Light and the Human Eye ..........................................................................476
19.2.2 Colour Description and Measurement .......................................................476
19.2.3 Instrumental Colour Match and Shade Assessment ...................................477
19.3 Selection of Dyes ..................................................................................................477
19.3.1 Achieving the Required Shade ...................................................................478
19.3.2 Compatibility of Dyes ................................................................................479
19.3.3 Metamerism ...............................................................................................479
19.3.4 Colour Fastness ..........................................................................................479
19.3.5 Environmental Considerations ...................................................................480
19.4 The Dyeing Process ..............................................................................................480
19.4.1 Dyeing Conditions .....................................................................................481
19.4.2 Machinery for Dyeing ................................................................................481
19.4.3 Further Textile Colouration ........................................................................481
19.5 Classes of Dye for Different Fibre Types .............................................................485
19.5.1 Cellulosic Fibres ........................................................................................485
19.5.2 Protein Fibres .............................................................................................487
19.5.3 Polyamide Fibres .......................................................................................489
19.5.4 Polyester Fibres ..........................................................................................491
19.5.5 Acrylic Fibres .............................................................................................492
19.5.6 Fibre Blends ...............................................................................................493
19.5.7 Fluorescent Brightening Agents .................................................................493
19.6 Strengths and Weaknesses of Natural and Synthetic Dyes ...................................494
19.6.1 Safety .........................................................................................................494
19.6.2 Shade Range and Reproducibility ..............................................................494
19.6.3 Colour Fastness ..........................................................................................494
19.6.4 Availability of Natural Dyes .......................................................................494
19.6.5 The Way Forward .......................................................................................495
19.7 Ensuring Quality and Effectiveness of Dyeing .....................................................495
19.7.1 Assessment of Shade ..................................................................................495
19.7.2 Assessment of Colour Fastness ..................................................................496
19.7.3 Assessment of Overall Substrate Quality ...................................................496
19.8 Environmental Impact of Dyeing ..........................................................................496
19.8.1 Water Consumption ....................................................................................497
19.8.2 Energy Consumption ..................................................................................497
19.8.3 Air Emissions .............................................................................................497
19.8.4 Effluent Emissions .....................................................................................497
19.8.5 Occupational Safety ...................................................................................498
19.8.6 Safety of Dyed Products ............................................................................498
19.9 Research and Future Trends ..................................................................................499
19.10 Summary ...............................................................................................................500
19.11 Case Study: Reactive Dyeing of Knitted Cotton Garments ..................................500
19.11.1 Selection of Dyes .....................................................................................500
19.11.2 Selection of Process Method ....................................................................501
19.11.3 Selection of Machinery ............................................................................502
19.11.4 Post-Dye Operations ................................................................................502
19.12 Project Ideas ..........................................................................................................503
19.12.1 Process Control to Reduce the Environmental Impact
of Dyeing .................................................................................................503
19.12.2 Restricted Substances List .......................................................................504
19.12.3 Controls Within a Dyeing and Finishing Operation .................................504
19.13 Revision Questions ...............................................................................................504
19.14 Sources of Further Information .............................................................................505
References .............................................................................................................505
CHAPTER 20 Fabric Finishing: Printing Textiles ............................................507
Learning Objectives ..............................................................................................507
20.1 Introduction ...........................................................................................................507
20.2 Direct Printing .......................................................................................................508
20.2.1 Pigment Printing ........................................................................................509
20.2.2 Reactive Dye Printing ................................................................................510
20.2.3 Disperse Dye Printing ................................................................................510
20.2.4 Vat Dye Printing .........................................................................................510
20.2.5 Acid Dye Printing ......................................................................................511
20.2.6 Digital Inkjet Printing ................................................................................511
20.3 Other Printing Techniques ....................................................................................511
20.3.1 Resist Printing ............................................................................................512
20.3.2 Discharge Printing ......................................................................................512
20.3.3 Burn-Out (Devoré) Printing .......................................................................512
20.4 Traditional Printing Methods ................................................................................513
20.5 Screen Printing ......................................................................................................515
20.5.1 Table Screen Printing .................................................................................515
20.5.2 Automatic Flat-Bed Screen Printing ..........................................................516
20.5.3 Rotary Screen Printing ...............................................................................517
20.5.4 Screen Design and Production ...................................................................518
20.6 Transfer Printing ...................................................................................................519
20.6.1 Gravure Printing .........................................................................................519
20.6.2 Digital Paper Printing .................................................................................520
20.6.3 Heat Transfer Press ....................................................................................520
20.7 Digital Inkjet Printing ...........................................................................................520
20.7.1 Technology and Characteristics .................................................................522
20.7.2 Design Application .....................................................................................523
20.8 Impact of CAD/CAM on the Design of Printed Textiles ......................................523
20.9 Research and Future Trends ..................................................................................525
20.10 Summary ...............................................................................................................526
20.11 Case Study ............................................................................................................526
20.12 Project Ideas ..........................................................................................................527
20.13 Revision Questions ...............................................................................................528
20.14 Sources of Further Information and Advice ..........................................................528
References .............................................................................................................529
CHAPTER 21 Applications of Textile Products ..............................................531
Learning Objectives ..............................................................................................531
21.1 Introduction ...........................................................................................................531
21.2 Apparel ..................................................................................................................532
21.3 Furnishing or Interior Textiles, Including Household Products ............................534
21.4 Technical Textiles ..................................................................................................536
21.4.1 Industrial Textiles and Geotextiles .............................................................536
21.4.2 Smart Fabrics and Intelligent Textiles ........................................................536
21.4.3 Medical Textiles .........................................................................................537
21.4.4 Wearable Textiles and Protective Clothing ................................................537
21.4.5 Eco Textiles ................................................................................................538
21.5 Textile Art .............................................................................................................538
21.6 Textile Industry .....................................................................................................539
21.7 Case Study: Traditional Bedouin al Sadu Hand-Woven Products and
Contemporary Digital Applications ......................................................................540
21.8 Future Trends ........................................................................................................542
21.9 Summary ...............................................................................................................543
21.10 Revision Questions ...............................................................................................543
21.11 Sources of Information .........................................................................................544
Further Reading ....................................................................................................544
CHAPTER 22 Sustainable Textile Production ................................................547
Learning Objectives ..............................................................................................547
22.1 Introduction ...........................................................................................................547
22.2 Key Issues in Sustainability ..................................................................................548
22.3 The Textile Supply Chain .....................................................................................549
22.3.1 Supply Chain for Fabrics Made from Natural Fibres ................................550
22.3.2 Synthetic Fibres .........................................................................................552
22.4 Assessing the Environmental Impact of the Textile Supply Chain .......................553
22.5 Minimising the Environmental Impact of the Textile Supply Chain ....................554
22.6 Case Study: Creating Sustainable and Socially Responsible
Fashion ..................................................................................................................556
22.6.1 Future Thinking in Sustainable Futures .....................................................556
22.7 Summary and Project Ideas ..................................................................................558
22.8 Sources of Further Information and Advice ..........................................................559
References .............................................................................................................560
PART 4 DEVELOPING TEXTILE PRODUCTS: THE CASE OF APPAREL
CHAPTER 23 Material Culture: Social Change, Culture, Fashion and
Textiles in Europe ...................................................................563
Learning Objectives ..............................................................................................563
23.1 Introduction ...........................................................................................................563
23.2 Art and Society .....................................................................................................564
23.2.1 Advances in Technology: The Industrial Revolution .................................564
23.2.2 Advances in Technology: Modern Developments ......................................567
23.2.3 Travel and Discovery .................................................................................568
23.2.4 Orientalism .................................................................................................569
23.2.5 The Space Race ..........................................................................................572
23.2.6 Modern Day ...............................................................................................575
23.3 Politics ...................................................................................................................575
23.3.1 Poster Art ...................................................................................................575
23.3.2 Soviet Posters .............................................................................................576
23.3.3 Guerilla Art ................................................................................................578
23.3.4 T-Shirts .......................................................................................................580
23.4 War ........................................................................................................................584
23.4.1 Bayeux Tapestry .........................................................................................584
23.4.2 Guernica .....................................................................................................584
23.4.3 Fashion and World War II ..........................................................................585
23.4.4 Textile Design Following World War II .....................................................586
23.5 Impact of Culture on Design, Fashion and Textiles ..............................................589
23.5.1 Cubism and Delaunay ................................................................................589
23.5.2 Surrealism and Schiaparelli .......................................................................589
23.5.3 Pop Art .......................................................................................................589
23.5.4 Op Art .........................................................................................................593
23.5.5 Popular Culture/Pop Culture ......................................................................594
23.5.6 Counter-Culture .........................................................................................595
23.5.7 Punk ...........................................................................................................595
23.6 Definitions of Textile Culture and Fashion Culture: Are They the Same? ...........597
23.7 Project Ideas ..........................................................................................................600
23.8 Revision Questions ...............................................................................................600
23.9 Further Reading ....................................................................................................600
References .............................................................................................................602
Electronic Sources ................................................................................................603
CHAPTER 24 Fashion and Culture: Global Culture and Fashion ......................605
Learning Objectives ..............................................................................................605
24.1 Introduction ...........................................................................................................605
24.2 Impact of Culture in European and Non-European Arenas ..................................606
24.3 Case Study ............................................................................................................607
24.3.1 Cultural Exchanges: Japan and the West ...................................................607
24.4 Future Trends ........................................................................................................619
24.4.1 Globalisation and the Democratisation of Fashion ....................................620
24.4.2 Sustainability in Fashion and Textiles: ‘Green’ Issues ..............................624
24.4.3 Ethical Fashion ...........................................................................................626
24.5 Summary Points ....................................................................................................629
24.6 Project Ideas ..........................................................................................................630
24.7 Revision Questions ...............................................................................................630
24.8 Further Reading ....................................................................................................631
References .............................................................................................................632
Electronic Sources ................................................................................................633
CHAPTER 25 Fashion and the Fashion Industry .............................................635
Learning Objectives ..............................................................................................635
25.1 Introduction ...........................................................................................................635
25.2 Emergence, Development and Change in Fashion ...............................................636
25.2.1 Fashion Is Evolutionary .............................................................................636
25.2.2 What Is Fashion Style? ...............................................................................637
25.2.3 Fashion Moves in Cycles ...........................................................................637
25.3 The Standard Fashion-Trend Cycle ......................................................................638
25.3.1 Style Regeneration .....................................................................................638
25.3.2 The Classic .................................................................................................639
25.3.3 The Fad ......................................................................................................639
25.4 Why Fashion Changes? .........................................................................................639
25.4.1 Topman Case Study ....................................................................................639
25.4.2 Topman Case Study: Project Ideas .............................................................642
25.4.3 Asos Case Study .........................................................................................642
25.4.4 Asos Case Study: Project Ideas ..................................................................644
25.5 Revision Questions ...............................................................................................645
25.6 Summary Points ....................................................................................................645
Magazines/Periodicals ..........................................................................................645
References and Further Reading ...........................................................................646
Websites ................................................................................................................647
CHAPTER 26 Visual Design Techniques for Fashion ......................................649
Learning Objectives ..............................................................................................649
26.1 Introduction ...........................................................................................................649
26.1.1 Research for Design ...................................................................................649
26.1.2 Planning the Collection ..............................................................................650
26.1.3 Developing the Samples .............................................................................651
26.2 Why Consumers Buy New Designs ......................................................................651
26.3 Market Research Methods for Identifying Emerging Consumer Needs .....................652
26.4 Finding Inspiration ................................................................................................653
26.4.1 Trade Shows ...............................................................................................654
26.4.2 Fashion Forecasting ...................................................................................654
26.4.3 Copyright ...................................................................................................654
26.4.4 Creative Thinking Techniques ....................................................................654
26.5 Aesthetic Qualities in a Good Design ...................................................................655
26.5.1 Shape and Silhouette ..................................................................................656
26.5.2 Proportion ..................................................................................................656
26.5.3 Colour ........................................................................................................656
26.5.4 Fabrics and Trimmings ...............................................................................656
26.5.5 Prints and Motifs ........................................................................................656
26.5.6 Details and Embellishments .......................................................................657
26.5.7 Styling and Accessories .............................................................................657
26.6 Design Tools .........................................................................................................657
26.7 Moving from Sample to Production .....................................................................658
26.8 Future Trends: Impact of New Technologies/Processes .......................................658
26.9 Case Study: The Development of a Garment ........................................................659
26.10 Summary ...............................................................................................................666
26.11 Project Ideas ..........................................................................................................667
26.11.1 Analysing a Collection .............................................................................667
26.11.2 Finding Trend Information .......................................................................667
26.11.3 Analysing a Garment ................................................................................667
26.12 Revision Questions ...............................................................................................667
26.13 Sources of Further Information and Advice ..........................................................668
References .............................................................................................................668
Further Reading ....................................................................................................668
CHAPTER 27 Computer-Aided Design (CAD) and Computer-Aided
Manufacturing (CAM) of Apparel and Other Textile
Products ................................................................................671
Learning Objectives ..............................................................................................671
27.1 Introduction ...........................................................................................................671
27.2 Fashion and Textile Software Programs ...............................................................673
27.3 Using CAD to Design Fashion Products ..............................................................674
27.3.1 Flats/Working Drawings ............................................................................675
27.3.2 Specification Sheets (Specs) ......................................................................675
27.3.3 Style Sheets ................................................................................................678
27.4 Other Uses of CAD in Fashion Design .................................................................678
27.4.1 Digital Design Library ...............................................................................678
27.4.2 Design Presentations ..................................................................................682
27.4.3 Digital Design Portfolio .............................................................................682
27.4.4 The Place of the App ..................................................................................685
27.5 CAM in Fashion and Textiles ...............................................................................686
27.5.1 3D Digital and Virtual Fabrication in Textiles and
Fashion .......................................................................................................686
27.5.2 New 3D Printing and Fabrication in Textiles and Fashion ........................688
27.6 Case Studies: Fashion Designers Interviewed by Sandra Burke ..........................691
27.6.1 Laura Krusemark .......................................................................................691
27.6.2 Alissa Stytsenko .........................................................................................693
27.7 Summary Points and Project Ideas .......................................................................700
27.8 Revision Questions ...............................................................................................700
27.9 Sources of Further Information and Advice ..........................................................700
27.9.1 Books .........................................................................................................700
27.9.2 Websites .....................................................................................................701
27.9.3 Web Resources ...........................................................................................702
27.9.4 Open Source Software ...............................................................................702
References and Further Reading ...........................................................................703
CHAPTER 28 Adding Functionality to Garments ............................................705
Learning Objectives ..............................................................................................705
28.1 Introduction ...........................................................................................................705
28.2 Factors Affecting Garment Function .....................................................................706
28.3 Improving Fabric Handle and Tailorability ...........................................................706
28.3.1 Fibre Properties ..........................................................................................707
28.3.2 Yarn Properties ...........................................................................................710
28.3.3 Fabric Properties ........................................................................................710
28.3.4 Dyeing and Finishing .................................................................................710
28.3.5 Measurement of Fabric Handle and Making-Up .......................................711
28.4 Reducing Wrinkling ..............................................................................................712
28.4.1 Factors Affecting Wrinkling and Wrinkle Recovery During Wear ............713
28.4.2 Fibre Properties ..........................................................................................715
28.4.3 Yarn and Fabric Parameters ........................................................................716
28.4.4 Mechanical and Chemical Finishing to Reduce Wrinkling .......................717
28.4.5 Measurement of Wrinkle and Crease Recovery .........................................717
28.5 Reducing Pilling ....................................................................................................719
28.5.1 How Pills Are Formed ................................................................................720
28.5.2 Fibre Properties ..........................................................................................720
28.5.3 Yarn Properties ...........................................................................................722
28.5.4 Fabric Properties ........................................................................................722
28.5.5 Dyeing and Finishing .................................................................................722
28.5.6 Measurement of Pilling ..............................................................................722
28.6 Reducing Bagging .................................................................................................724
28.6.1 Fibre Properties ..........................................................................................724
28.6.2 Yarn Properties ...........................................................................................725
28.6.3 Fabric Properties ........................................................................................725
28.6.4 Garment Construction ................................................................................725
28.6.5 Finishing ....................................................................................................725
28.6.6 Measurement of Bagging ...........................................................................725
28.7 Improving Fabric and Garment Drape ..................................................................726
28.7.1 Fibre Properties ..........................................................................................727
28.7.2 Yarn Properties ...........................................................................................728
28.7.3 Fabric Properties ........................................................................................728
28.7.4 Dyeing and Finishing .................................................................................729
28.7.5 Garment Construction ................................................................................729
28.7.6 Measurement of Drape ...............................................................................729
28.8 Improving Fabric and Garment Durability ...........................................................730
28.8.1 Fibre Properties ..........................................................................................730
28.8.2 Yarn Properties ...........................................................................................731
28.8.3 Fabric Properties ........................................................................................731
28.8.4 Garment Design and Fit .............................................................................732
28.8.5 Dyeing and Finishing .................................................................................732
28.8.6 Measurement of Fabric Durability .............................................................732
28.9 Research and Future Trends ..................................................................................735
28.10 Summary ...............................................................................................................735
28.11 Project Ideas ..........................................................................................................736
28.12 Revision Questions ...............................................................................................736
References .............................................................................................................736
CHAPTER 29 Improving the Comfort of Garments ..........................................739
Learning Objectives ..............................................................................................739
29.1 Introduction ...........................................................................................................739
29.2 Tactile Comfort .....................................................................................................740
29.3 Thermo-Physiological (Thermal) Comfort ...........................................................742
29.3.1 Factors Affecting the Thermal Insulation of Fabrics and Clothing ...................742
29.3.2 Factors Affecting the Moisture (Vapour) Transmission
Properties of Fabric and Clothing .............................................................743
29.3.3 Factors Affecting Liquid Water Transport Properties of Fabrics and Clothing ..........744
29.3.4 Factors Affecting Garment Fit and Ease of Body Movement ............745
29.4 Measuring Physiological Comfort ........................................................................746
29.4.1 Tactile Comfort ..........................................................................................746
29.4.2 Thermal Contact .........................................................................................746
29.4.3 Thermal Insulation .....................................................................................746
29.4.4 Water Vapour Permeability ........................................................................747
29.4.5 Liquid Water Transport Properties .............................................................749
29.4.6 Garment Fit and Ease of Body Movement .................................................750
29.4.7 Pressure Comfort .......................................................................................750
29.4.8 Formaldehyde Content ...............................................................................750
29.5 Psychological Comfort ..........................................................................................751
29.5.1 Factors Affecting Psychological Comfort ..................................................751
29.5.2 Assessing Psychological Comfort ..............................................................753
29.6 Improving Waterproofing and Breathability .........................................................753
29.6.1 Factors Affecting Fabric and Garment Breathability .................................755
29.6.2 Measuring Waterproofing and Breathability ..............................................757
29.7 Research and Future Trends ..................................................................................758
29.8 Summary ...............................................................................................................759
29.9 Case Study ............................................................................................................759
29.10 Project Ideas ..........................................................................................................760
29.11 Revision Questions ...............................................................................................760
References .............................................................................................................760
CHAPTER 30 The Marketing of Fashion ........................................................763
Learning Objectives ..............................................................................................763
30.1 Introduction ...........................................................................................................763
30.2 What is Marketing? ...............................................................................................763
30.2.1 The Four P’s: Product, Price, Place and Promotion ...................................764
30.2.2 The Four C’s: Consumer, Cost, Convenience and Communication ..........764
30.3 The Marketing of Fashion .....................................................................................764
30.3.1 Product Development .................................................................................766
30.3.2 Retailing Space ..........................................................................................766
30.3.3 Communication of the Product ..................................................................766
30.3.4 Public Relations .........................................................................................766
30.4 Targeting a Market ................................................................................................767
30.4.1 Customer Profiles .......................................................................................768
30.4.2 Seasonal and Occasion Markets .................................................................768
30.5 Branding ................................................................................................................768
30.5.1 Branding Case Study: Apple Inc. ...............................................................768
30.6 The Traditional Media Channels ...........................................................................769
30.7 New Technologies as Media Channels .................................................................770
30.7.1 Web 2.0 and Other Technological Developments ......................................770
30.7.2 Case Study: Wickedweb Digital Marketing Agency ..................................773
30.8 The Marketing Plan ...............................................................................................774
30.8.1 Case Study 1: ‘Evolution’ by Katie Lay ....................................................774
30.8.2 Case Study 2: ‘Stratagem’ by Luke Anthony Richardson .........................782
30.8.3 Case Study 3: Commercial Case Study – All Saints of Spitalfields ..........790
30.9 Future Trends ........................................................................................................791
30.9.1 Fashion Forecasting ...................................................................................791
30.9.2 New Technologies and Processes ...............................................................792
30.10 Summary Points ....................................................................................................794
30.11 Project Ideas and Revision Questions ...................................................................795
30.12 Sources of Further Information .............................................................................795
30.12.1 Books .......................................................................................................795
30.12.2 Trend Forecasting Companies ..................................................................795
30.12.3 Fashion Forecasting Companies ..............................................................796
30.12.4 Magazines ................................................................................................796
30.12.5 Websites ...................................................................................................796
References .............................................................................................................797
CHAPTER 31 The Care of Apparel Products ..................................................799
Learning Objectives ..............................................................................................799
Abbreviations ........................................................................................................799
31.1 Introduction ...........................................................................................................800
31.2 Wear of Garments .................................................................................................801
31.2.1 Pilling .........................................................................................................801
31.2.2 Abrasion .....................................................................................................802
31.2.3 Colour Fading ............................................................................................803
31.2.4 Breaking of Yarns and Fabrics ...................................................................803
31.2.5 Snagging ....................................................................................................805
31.2.6 Seam Failure ..............................................................................................805
31.2.7 Dimensional Change ..................................................................................806
31.2.8 Other Problems ..........................................................................................807
31.3 Stains .....................................................................................................................808
31.4 Laundering ............................................................................................................809
31.4.1 Laundering Chemicals ...............................................................................809
31.4.2 Laundering Aids .........................................................................................811
31.4.3 Laundering Equipment ...............................................................................812
31.5 Care Labelling .......................................................................................................813
31.5.1 Care Label Requirements ...........................................................................814
31.5.2 Care Labelling Systems .............................................................................815
31.6 Clothing Storage ...................................................................................................818
31.7 Conclusions and Future Trends .............................................................................818
31.8 Sources of Further Information .............................................................................819
31.9 Summary Points ....................................................................................................819
31.10 Project Ideas ..........................................................................................................819
31.11 Revision Questions ...............................................................................................819
References .............................................................................................................820
Glossary ..................................................................................................823
Index ..........................................................................................................833

Read and Download "Textiles and Fashion" as PDF
How to Get Book? To get any book you can send Email: textileebooks@gmail.com

Share this

Related Posts

Previous
Next Post »