Textiles for Hygiene and Infection Control Edited by Brian J. McCarthy

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Textiles for Hygiene and Infection Control
Edited by Brian J. McCarthy

Contents
Contributor contact details xi
Woodhead Publishing Series in Textiles xv

Part I Design and production techniques for hygiene textiles
1 The design of novel hygiene textile products 3
M. JASSAL, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), India
1.1 Introduction: hygiene products 3
1.2 Applications of hygiene products 3
1.3 Key property requirements of hygiene products 4
1.4 Types of new technology to improve the performance of hygiene products 5
1.5 References 10
2 Nanotechnology and its application to medical hygiene textiles 14
F. SARTAIN, A. READER, M. FISHER, B. PARK, M. KEMP
and J. JOHNSTONE, NanoKTN, UK and B. J. MCCARTHY, TechniTex Faraday
Limited, UK
2.1 Introduction 14
2.2 Healthcare and life sciences 15
2.3 Standards and regulations for nanotechnology products 18
2.4 The global textiles and clothing sectors 19
2.5 References 25
3 Use of knitted spacer fabrics for hygiene applications 27
A. M. DAVIES, De Montfort University, UK
3.1 Introduction: key issues in hygiene and moisture management 27
3.2 Three-dimensional fabrics: an overview 29
3.3 Principles of knitting spacer fabrics 31
3.4 Application of knitted spacer fabrics in hygiene products 35
3.5 Future trends 44
3.6 References 45
4 Innovative and sustainable packaging strategies for hygiene products 48
S. LAM PO TANG, TechniTex Faraday Limited, UK
4.1 Introduction 48
4.2 Key considerations and drivers for the packaging of hygiene products 51
4.3 Growing trends and innovation strategies 56
4.4 Future trends for the hygiene industry 64
4.5 Sources of further information and advice 66
4.6 References 66
5 Biodegradable hygiene products 68
M. BENEDETTI, W.I.P. Spa, Italy 68
5.1 Introduction 68
5.2 A classification of sustainable materials according to their ecological footprint 69
5.3 Criteria for the selection and implementation of sustainable alternative raw materials 70
5.4 Alternative raw materials 72
5.5 Conclusion 80

Part II Design and production techniques for infection control textiles
6 Micro-organisms, infection and the role of textiles 85
R. JAMES, University of Nottingham, UK
6.1 Introduction to infections 85
6.2 Superbugs and healthcare-associated infections 91
6.3 Principles of infection prevention and control in hospitals 94
6.4 The role of textiles in infection prevention and control 97
6.5 Future trends 98
6.6 A holistic approach to preventing infections 100
6.7 Sources of further information and advice 101
6.8 References 101
7 Creating barrier textiles through plasma processing 104
S. COULSON, P2i Ltd, UK
7.1 Introduction 104
7.2 The importance of liquid repellency 105
7.3 Current solutions for rendering barrier textiles liquid repellent 109
7.4 Use of plasmas for imparting liquid repellency to barrier textiles 111
7.5 Applications for plasma-processed barrier textiles 115
7.6 Future trends 123
7.7 Sources of further information and advice 123
7.8 References 124
8 Disposable and reusable medical textiles 125
G. SUN, University of California, Davis, USA
8.1 Introduction: disposable versus reusable 125
8.2 Life cycles of disposable and reusable textiles 126
8.3 Costs of disposable and reusable textiles 128
8.4 Protection provided by disposable and reusable materials 130
8.5 Biocidal woven and nonwoven textiles 131
8.6 Conclusions 133
8.7 Acknowledgment 133
8.8 References 133
9 Ensuring fabrics survive sterilisation 136
M. J. A. M. ABREU, Universidade do Minho, Portugal
9.1 Introduction 136
9.2 Purpose and importance of sterilisation 137
9.3 Quality assurance of the sterilising process 143
9.4 Effect of sterilisation on fibres and fabrics 144
9.5 Reprocessing sterilised products 145
9.6 Normalisation 147
9.7 Conclusions 148
9.8 References 148

Part III Product types
10 Washable textile-based absorbent products for incontinence 153
A. M. COTTENDEN, R. SANTAMARTA VILELA, M. C. MACAULAY,
D. J. COTTENDEN, M. A. LANDERYOU and D. LILBURN, University
College London, UK and M. J. FADER, University of Southampton, UK
10.1 Introduction 153
10.2 Incontinence pad designs 155
10.3 Functional requirements of washable, textile-based incontinence products 155
10.4 Clinical performance of existing products 157
10.5 Laboratory evaluation 161
10.6 Correlation with user data 168
10.7 Future trends 170
10.8 Sources of further information and advice 171
10.9 References 171
11 Biological containment suits used in microbiological high containment facilities and by emergency responders 173
J. T. WALKER, K. GIRI, T. POTTAGE, S. PARKS, A. DAVIES and
A. M. BENNETT, HPA, UK and C. LECULIER AND H. RAOUL,
Laboratoire P4 INSERM Jean Mérieux, France
11.1 Introduction 173
11.2 Containment fabrics to protect against biological threats 174
11.3 Conclusions 183
11.4 References 183
12 Coated textiles for skin infections 186
G. SENTI, A. U. FREIBURGHAUS and T. M. KÜNDIG, Centre for
Clinical Research, University Hospital of Zurich, Switzerland
12.1 Introduction: textiles, skin and infections 186
12.2 Types of coated textiles with anti-infectious properties 187
12.3 Applications for coated textiles to prevent or treat cutaneous infections 188
12.4 Future trends for coated textiles against skin infections 192
12.5 Sources of further information and advice 192
12.6 References 193
13 Antimicrobial treatments of textiles for hygiene and infection control applications: an industrial perspective 196
S. C. BURNETT-BOOTHROYD, Advanced Textiles Limited, UK
and B. J. MCCARTHY, TechniTex Faraday Limited, UK
13.1 Introduction 196
13.2 Processes for biocidal application for textile structures 198
13.3 Application during yarn and fibre manufacture: natural and synthetic 199
13.4 Antimicrobial testing procedures 204
13.5 Future trends 205
13.6 Conclusion 208
13.7 Sources of further information and advice 208
Index 210

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