Wool: Science and Technology Edited by W S Simpson and G H Crawshaw

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Wool: Science and Technology
Edited by W S Simpson and G H Crawshaw
Wool: Science and Technology

Contents
Preface xi
List of contributors xiii
1 Wool production and fibre marketing 1
w s simpson
1.1 General introduction 1
1.2 World wool production 3
1.3 Wool harvesting 5
1.4 Clip preparation 5
1.5 Participants in the wool trade 5
1.6 Wool sampling 11
1.7 Fibre diameter 13
1.8 Fibre length 14
1.9 Wool colour 15
1.10 Bulk testing 16
1.11 Dark fibre contamination 16
1.12 Specification of woolscour deliveries 17
1.13 Computer blend selection 18
1.14 Wool promotion 18
1.15 The Fernmark brand 19
1.16 Marketing of distinctive wool types 19
References 20
2 Woolscouring, carbonising and effluent treatment 21
l a halliday
2.1 Introduction 21
2.2 Nature of contaminants 21
2.3 Historical overview of scouring methods 22
2.4 Unit operations 23
2.5 Scouring chemistry 33
2.6 Development of scouring systems 35
2.7 Chemical treatments in woolscours 39
2.8 Drying 42
2.9 Solvent scouring 45
2.10 Woolgrease and its recovery 46
2.11 Effluent 49
2.12 Process control and quality assurance 55
2.13 Energy conservation 56
References 57
3 Fibre morphology 60
h höcker
3.1 Introduction 60
3.2 General chemical composition 61
3.3 Composition and structure of morphological
components of wool 67
3.4 Outlook 76
References 78
4 Physical properties of wool 80
j w s hearle
4.1 The wool fibre 80
4.2 Effects of water 80
4.3 Observed mechanical properties 84
4.4 Structural mechanics 106
4.5 Electrical properties 118
4.6 Yarns and fabrics 122
References 126
5 Wool chemistry 130
w s simpson
5.1 General introduction 130
5.2 Chemical composition 131
5.3 Degradation by radiation and heat 131
5.4 Photobleaching and photoyellowing 132
5.5 Absorption of acids 135
5.6 Absorption of alkalis 137
5.7 Dyeing with acid dyestuffs 139
5.8 Acid, alkali and enzymic hydrolysis 141
5.9 Oxidation with peracids 143
5.10 Chlorine-based oxidation 145
5.11 Reduction 145
5.12 Sulphitolysis 146
5.13 Metal salts 147
5.14 Miscellaneous reactions 150
5.15 Crosslinking 151
References 156
6 Mechanical processing for yarn production 160
l hunter
6.1 Introduction 160
6.2 Worsted processing system 161
6.3 Preparation for spinning (drawing) 177
6.4 Semi-worsted processing system 180
6.5 Woollen processing system 181
6.6 Spinning 192
6.7 Twisting 206
6.8 Winding, clearing and lubrication 207
6.9 Yarn steaming (setting) 208
6.10 Top dyeing 208
References 209
Bibliography 213
7 Chemical processes for enhanced appearance
and performance 215
w s simpson
7.1 Introduction 215
7.2 Bleaching 215
7.3 Prevention of dyebath yellowing 216
7.4 Insect-resist treatments 217
7.5 Shrinkproofing 219
7.6 Antistatic properties 224
7.7 Flame-retardant wool 225
7.8 Photostabilisers 226
7.9 Stainblocking 228
7.10 Multi-purpose finishes 229
7.11 Polymer grafting 230
7.12 Removal of vegetable matter by carbonising 232
7.13 Setting 232
References 234
8 Practical wool dyeing 237
k parton
8.1 Introduction 237
8.2 Dyestuff chemistry 238
8.3 Dyeing of different substrate forms 240
8.4 Classification of wool dyestuffs 242
8.5 Commercial forms of dyestuffs 247
8.6 Levelness 248
8.7 Dyeing fibre blends 251
8.8 Treatments to improve colour fastness 252
8.9 Environmental issues 252
8.10 Fibre protection 256
8.11 Summary 256
References 257
9 Manufacture of wool products 258
k russell, d mcdowell, i ryder and c smith
9.1 Introduction 258
9.2 Twisting 258
9.3 Winding 264
9.4 Warp preparation for weaving 266
9.5 Weaving yarns 269
9.6 Fabric design 270
9.7 Weaving machinery 273
9.8 Knitting and knitwear 275
Bibliography 289
10 Carpets, felts and nonwoven fabrics 290
10.1 Carpets 290
10.2 Felts and nonwoven fabrics 304
References 312
11 Finishing 314
11.1 Finishing of woven fabrics 314
11.2 Finishing of knitted fabrics 328
11.3 Finishing of knitwear 330
Reference 332
12 Overview of global dynamics in the wool textile industry 333
12.1 Introduction 333
12.2 Overview of trends in world textiles 333
12.3 Factors shaping global integration in textiles 335
12.4 Overview of trends in wool textile production and trade 337
12.5 Factors behind the declining importance of wool and wool textiles 342
12.6 Patterns of industry development and adjustment 349
12.7 Outlook for the wool textile industry 355
References 357
Index 360

Preface
Werner von Bergen and his collaborators released Volume 1 of their Wool Handbook in 1963, and two further volumes followed soon after.This series was unique in presenting a broad-spectrum description of every pertinent aspect from sheep-raising to wool consumer products.These texts were subsequently enlarged and reprinted in several editions.

Another notable previous publication was Wool. Its Chemistry and Physics by Alexander and Hudson, first published in 1954. More recently, two more narrowly focused texts have appeared, both highly valued in industry and academia.They are Maclaren and Milligan’s Wool Science.The Chemical Reactivity of the Wool Fibre (NSW Science Press 1981) and Lewis’ Wool Dyeing (Soc. Dyers and Colourists, Bradford, 1992). The present text is therefore the first attempt in almost 40 years to present a comprehensive view of the wool industry from fibre marketing through to manufacture of consumer products.

In Chapter 1, I briefly describe a major overhaul that has occurred of the methods of trading wool, basically moving the entire system from one of individual intuitive skill to one based on laboratory measurements of sale lots.

Wool-scouring also has improved enormously in efficiency with a host of small and a few large innovations. Chapter 2 describes this modern technology, which reflects a strong emphasis on environmental concerns such as treating effluent discharges and energy conservation, coupled with far better quality control and capabilities for new add-on processes.

Chapters 3, 4 and 5 describe the principal sectors of current wool science. Understanding of wool fibre morphology, and of physical and chemical properties continues to progress and, in doing so, highlights just how intricate and complex is the wool fibre. Instrumentation, now available for isolating and sequencing wool proteins and for determining their structural arrangement, is beginning to offer a better-informed basis for technologists to devise improved wool products and processes.

Chapters 6 onwards deal in turn with each major aspect of wool pro cessing technology. I have to say the contributing authors have been, and in most cases still are, working in the heartlands of these industries. Spinning, weaving and knitting are the three really major physical processes. The Chapter on wool carpets exemplifies how one particular consumer product may be woven, tufted, knotted, or needled to create a great variety of pattern and texture.

Chemical processes that improve appearance or performance of wool products have been brought together in Chapter 7 to better highlight the technical options available to meet special specifications.The development of synthetic fibres with specialised performance features, allied with higher expectations of consumers, has been a strong motivation for creative new processes for wool. Flameproof protective clothing and antistatic carpets are just two fairly recent examples where wool products meet the most demanding requirements.

Wool dyeing innovation is similar to wool-scouring in some respects in that it has been driven by a greater emphasis on energy conservation, shorter treatment times, and better management of effluents, in addition to the publicly more visible competitive demands for high standards of stylish and stable colouration of wool products. The final chapter is intended to put these modern developments in the wool industry into a global context amongst other fibres and textile technologies.

I wish to sincerely thank my co-authors for their efforts to make available an up-to-date text for wool technologists, textile students and so many others interested in this old, yet modern, industry.

W S Simpson


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