Woven Textile Structure: Theory And Applications | B. K. Behera and P. K. Hari

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Woven Textile Structure: Theory And Applications
By B. K. Behera and P. K. Hari
Woven Textile Structure: Theory And Applications

Contents
The authors xi
Woodhead Publishing Series in Textiles xiii
Preface xix

Part I Fundamentals of woven fabric structure
1 The basics of woven fabric structure 3
1.1 Introduction: woven fabric formation 3
1.2 Elements of woven fabric structure 5
1.3 Regular and irregular weaves 5
1.4 Modeling different weaves 6
1.5 References 8
2 Geometrical modeling of woven fabric structure 9
2.1 Introduction: woven fabric structure 9
2.2 A simple geometric model of woven fabric structure 9
2.3 Using the model to predict the fabric thickness, cover, mass and specific volume 17
2.4 Modeling maximum fabric cover 19
2.5 Calculating fabric properties: numerical examples 21
2.6 References 29
3 Using a geometric model to predict woven fabric properties 30
3.1 Introduction 30
3.2 Predicting woven fabric parameters 31
3.3 Predicting the weavability limit 41
3.4 Predicting cover in different woven structures 53
3.5 Calculating fabric properties: numerical examples 57
3.6 Application: calculating tightness values 70
3.7 References 72
4 Woven fabric properties after structural modifications 73
4.1 Introduction 73
4.2 Crimp interchange phenomena 73
4.3 Maximum fabric extension 75
4.4 Other structural changes 76
4.5 Structural design of woven fabrics using soft computing 76
4.6 Calculating fabric properties: numerical examples 82
4.7 Reference 105

Part II Mechanics of woven fabric structure
5 Shrinkage in woven fabrics 109
5.1 Introduction 109
5.2 Mechanisms of fabric shrinkage 110
5.3 The relationship between cloth and yarn shrinkage 112
5.4 Predicting fabric shrinkage 113
5.5 Application of fabric shrinkage model 115
5.6 References 117
6 Yarn behavior in woven fabrics 118
6.1 Introduction 118
6.2 The yarn path in woven fabrics and inter-yarn forces 118
6.3 The crimp balance equation 121
6.4 Predicting the yarn path in woven fabrics 122
6.5 The effect of settings on yarn behavior 127
6.6 Crimp interchange and crimp balance equations 128
6.7 Calculating fabric properties: numerical examples 131
6.8 Practical applications 136
6.9 References 136
7 Tensile behavior of woven fabrics 137
7.1 Introduction 137
7.2 Fundamentals of axial deformation 138
7.3 Tensile properties of woven fabrics 142
7.4 Castigliano’s theorem 149
7.5 The sawtooth model 152
7.6 Fabric extension in the bias direction 157
7.7 Factors affecting the tensile properties of woven fabrics 162
7.8 References 163
8 Buckling behavior of woven fabrics 164
8.1 Introduction 164
8.2 Buckling deformation of woven fabric 165
8.3 Buckling behavior of cloth under large deformation 166
8.4 Hysteresis in fabric deformation 172
8.5 Practical applications 172
8.6 References 172
9 Bending behavior of woven fabrics 173
9.1 Introduction 173
9.2 Fundamentals of bending deformation 174
9.3 Modeling bending behavior 176
9.4 The bending behavior of woven fabrics 178
9.5 Bending hysteresis 187
9.6 The effect of setting on bending behavior 190
9.7 Bending recovery 191
9.8 Bending at higher curvatures 191
9.9 The time effect in bending deformation 191
9.10 Bending in the bias direction 192
9.11 Practical applications 196
9.12 References 196
10 Creasing in woven fabrics 197
10.1 Introduction 197
10.2 Mechanisms of creasing 197
10.3 Deformation and crease recovery behavior 199
10.4 The effect of time on deformation and crease recovery 202
10.5 Factors affecting crease recovery of fabrics 203
10.6 References 204
11 Shear behavior of woven fabrics 205
11.1 Introduction 205
11.2 Fundamentals of shear deformation 206
11.3 Shear deformation in woven fabrics 207
11.4 Shear properties in various directions 215
11.5 Predicting shear properties: practical applications 216
11.6 References 216
12 Compression behavior of woven fabrics 217
12.1 Introduction 217
12.2 Fundamentals of compression 218
12.3 The compression behavior of textile structures 218
12.4 The exponential behavior of compressible fabrics 222
12.5 The low stress pressure–thickness curve 223
12.6 Predicting compression in woven fabrics 223
12.7 Practical applications 229
12.8 References 229
13 Friction and other aspects of the surface behavior of woven fabrics 230
13.1 Introduction 230
13.2 Fundamentals of friction and abrasion 231
13.3 Measuring roughness and other surface properties of woven fabrics 232
13.4 Factors affecting abrasion resistance 236
13.5 References 241

Part III Design and engineering of woven fabrics
14 Textile product design methods 245
14.1 Introduction 245
14.2 The design process for textiles 246
14.3 Traditional design methods 247
14.4 Key issues in the design of textile products 248
14.5 Computer-assisted design (CAD) of woven fabrics 250
14.6 Design engineering using modeling 251
14.7 Reverse engineering 252
14.8 Expert systems in textile product design 252
14.9 References 257
15 Modeling for textile product design 260
15.1 Introduction 260
15.2 Principles of mathematical modeling 260
15.3 Modeling methodologies 262
15.4 Deterministic models 262
15.5 Nondeterministic models 264
15.6 Validation and testing of models 272
15.7 Summary 273
15.8 References 273
16 Building predictive models for textile product design 275
16.1 Introduction 275
16.2 Building empirical, mathematical and artificial neural network (ANN) models 276
16.3 Evaluating mathematical, empirical and artificial neural network (ANN) models 281
16.4 Summary 288
16.5 References 290
17 Modeling for woven fabric design 292
17.1 Introduction 292
17.2 Types of computer modeling in fabric design and manufacture 292
17.3 The application of modeling to woven fabric design 294
17.4 Modeling structure–property relationships: elongation and bending 300
17.5 Modeling of woven fabric texture 302
17.6 Limitations of modeling 303
17.7 References 304

Part IV Practical applications
18 Assessing the comfort of woven fabrics: fabric handle 309
18.1 Introduction 309
18.2 The objective measurement of comfort 310
18.3 Measuring fabric handle 311
18.4 Primary and total fabric handle 317
18.5 Factors affecting fabric handle 321
18.6 Summary 326
18.7 References 326
19 Assessing the comfort of woven fabrics: thermal properties 330
19.1 Introduction 330
19.2 Thermal comfort in humans 331
19.3 The function of textiles in enhancing thermal comfort 332
19.4 Heat transfer through woven fabrics 333
19.5 Moisture vapor transfer through woven fabrics 335
19.6 Measuring thermal comfort 340
19.7 References 341
20 Modeling woven fabric drape 343
20.1 Introduction 343
20.2 Two-dimensional and three-dimensional drape 343
20.3 Subjective and objective measurement of drape 347
20.4 Drape measurement by digital image processing 348
20.5 The relationship between drape and the mechanical properties of woven fabrics 352
20.6 Low stress mechanical properties of woven fabrics and drapeability 353
20.7 Modeling of woven fabric drape 354
20.8 Predicting drape using artificial neural network (ANN) modeling 365
20.9 Modeling dynamic drape 367
20.10 References 369
21 Modeling woven fabric behavior during the making-up of garments 372
21.1 Introduction 372
21.2 Fabric properties and apparel performance 373
21.3 The garment making-up process and fabric properties 374
21.4 Low stress fabric mechanical properties and the garment making-up process 376
21.5 Measuring fabric suitability for the garment making-up process 379
21.6 Fabric buckling and tailoring of garments 381
21.7 Measuring sewability: seam strength 382
21.8 Measuring sewability: seam puckering 383
21.9 Measuring sewability: seam slippage 390
21.10 References 392
22 Modeling three-dimensional (3-D) woven fabric structures 393
22.1 Introduction: 3-D fabrics 393
22.2 2-D and 3-D fabric weaving 394
22.3 Classifying 3-D woven fabrics 394
22.4 Modeling equations for weaving 2-D and 3-D fabrics 402
22.5 The use of 2-D and 3-D textiles in composites 405
22.6 The tensile properties of 3-D textile composites 409
22.7 References 412
23 Application of woven fabrics 413
23.1 Introduction 413
23.2 Fundamental aspects of woven textile structure and function 414
23.3 Medical textiles 416
23.4 Automotive textiles 417
23.5 Filter fabrics 421
23.6 Textiles for electronics 423
23.7 Sports textiles 430
23.8 References 435
Index 436

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