Advances in Yarn Spinning Technology Edited by C. A. Lawrence

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Advances in Yarn Spinning Technology
Edited by C. A. Lawrence
Advances in Yarn Spinning Technology

Contents
Contributor contact details xi
Woodhead Publishing series in Textiles xiii

Part I Introduction to yarn spinning and structure
1 Overview of developments in yarn spinning
technology 3
C. A. Lawrence, University of Leeds, UK
1.1 Introduction 3
1.2 Early history 4
1.3 Early developments 9
1.4 Ring spinning 22
1.5 Modern spinning methods and developments: an overview 25
1.6 Twist spinning methods 26
1.7 Wrap spinning methods 34
1.8 Conclusions 39
1.9 References 40
2 Fundamental principles of ring spinning of yarns 42
R. S. Rengasa my, IIT Delhi, India
2.1 Introduction 42
2.2 Basic principles of spinning 43
2.3 Ring spinning 44
2.4 Ring spinning systems 49
2.5 Description of the ring spinning process 49
2.6 Post-spinning 72
2.7 Applications of ring spinning 74
2.8 Future trends 76
2.9 References and bibliography 77
3 Fundamental principles of open end yarn spinning 79
A. Das and R. Ala girusa my, IIT Delhi, India
3.1 Introduction 79
3.2 Commercial open end spinning systems: rotor spinning 81
3.3 Friction spinning 84
3.4 Vortex spinning 93
3.5 Conclusions 98
3.6 References 98
4 Blending and composite yarn spinning 102
M. R. Mahmoudi, University of Leeds, UK
4.1 Introduction: the purpose of blending 102
4.2 Blending and yarn properties 105
4.3 Blending methods 108
4.4 Carding 112
4.5 Measuring the effectiveness of blending 115
4.6 References and sources of further information 118
5 Yarn structure and properties from different spinning techniques 119
G. K. Tyagi, The Technological Institute of Textile and
Sciences, India
5.1 Introduction 119
5.2 Ring spun yarns 120
5.3 Rotor spun yarns 126
5.4 Air-jet spun yarns 134
5.5 Friction spun yarns 141
5.6 Wrap spun yarns 146
5.7 Structure–property relationships of staple spun yarns 147
5.8 The plying of staple fibre yarns 149
5.9 Future trends 150
5.10 Acknowledgements 151
5.11 References 151
6 Yarn structural requirements for knitted and woven fabrics 155
H. M. Behery, Clemson University, USA
6.1 Introduction 155
6.2 Fiber types and their classification 156
6.3 Principal requirements for knitted fabric end uses 156
6.4 Principal requirements for woven fabric end uses 161
6.5 Yarn types and their classification 167
6.6 Fiber/yarn/manufacturing process interactions and their effect on yarn structure 176
6.7 Survey of yarn properties 177
6.8 Criteria for choice of fibers and yarns to suit fabric end use and performance 179
6.9 Conclusions 180
6.10 Sources of further information and advice 181
6.11 References and bibliography 181
6.12 Appendix: Glossary and definitions of physical and mechanical properties of fibers, yarns and fabrics 182

Part II Advances in particular yarn spinning technologies
7 Developments in ring spinning 193
R. S. Rengasa my, IIT Delhi, India
7.1 Introduction 193
7.2 Main technologies of spinning 194
7.3 Advantages and limitations of ring spinning 194
7.4 Developments in ring spinning 195
7.5 Future trends 216
7.6 References and bibliography 216
8 Siro and Solo spinning 217
P. R. Lamb and X. Wang, Deakin University, Australia
8.1 Introduction 217
8.2 Background 217
8.3 Sirospun 219
8.4 Solospun 225
8.5 Types of fibres used 227
8.6 Yarn quality and properties achieved 228
8.7 Advantages and limitations 229
8.8 Applications 231
8.9 The development of ancillary processes 232
8.10 Future trends 233
8.11 Sources of further information and advice 234
8.12 References 234
9 Compact spinning technology 237
M. A. M. El-Sayed and S. H. Sanad , Agricultural Research
Centre, Cotton Research Institute, Egypt
9.1 Introduction 237
9.2 Types of fibre used 247
9.3 Yarn quality and properties 249
9.4 Advantages and limitations of compact spinning 251
9.5 Applications of compact yarn on downstream processing 253
9.6 Future trends 254
9.7 Sources of further information and advice 258
9.8 References 259
10 Rotor spinning 261
A. Das and R. Ala girusa my, IIT Delhi, India
10.1 Introduction 261
10.2 Key features and operating principles of rotor spinning systems 262
10.3 Fibre transfer 265
10.4 Modern rotor spinning machines 269
10.5 Rotor spinning performance: yarn breakage 270
10.6 Structure and properties of rotor spun yarns 271
10.7 Conclusions 272
10.8 References 273
11 Friction spinning 274
A. A. Merat i, Amirkabir University of Technology, Iran
11.1 Introduction 274
11.2 Yarn formation on friction-spinning machines 277
11.3 Composite yarn spinning on friction spinning 286
11.4 Types of fibres used 289
11.5 Friction-spun yarn structure and properties 291
11.6 Advantages and limitations of friction spinning 306
11.7 Application of friction-spun yarns 308
11.8 Future trends 309
11.9 References and bibliography 310
12 Air-jet spinning 315
R. A. Angelova, Technical University of Sofia, Bulgaria
12.1 Introduction 315
12.2 Basic air-jet spinning methods 318
12.3 Types of fibres used 324
12.4 Fasciated structure of air-jet spun yarns 326
12.5 The basic principles of the twisting mechanism by swirl flow 331
12.6 Simulation of the flow–yarn interaction 337
12.7 Properties of air-jet spun yarns 339
12.8 Advantages and limitations of air-jet spinning 340
12.9 Applications of air-jet spun yarns 341
12.10 Future trends 342
12.11 References 342
13 Hollow spindle spinning 345
R. A. Angelova, Technical University of Sofia, Bulgaria
13.1 Introduction 345
13.2 Basic principle of hollow spindle spinning 346
13.3 Structure of yarns made by hollow spindle machines 352
13.4 Assessment of the quality of wrap yarns 355
13.5 Application of hollow spindle spun yarns 358
13.6 Advantages and limitations of hollow spindle spinning 359
13.7 Future trends 361
13.8 References 362
14 Self-twist spinning 365
M. R. Mahmoudi, University of Leeds, UK
14.1 Introduction 365
14.2 Self-twist spinning: principles 368
14.3 Self-twist spinning technology 369
14.4 Factors affecting strand twist 376
14.5 Self-twist yarn strength and stability 381
14.6 References and sources of further information 387
15 Minimizing fiber damage caused by spinning 390
Y. Elmogahzy and R. Farag, Auburn University, USA
15.1 Introduction 390
15.2 Textile fiber characteristics and processing 391
15.3 Fiber breakage 393
15.4 Fiber damage in the yarn-forming process 402
15.5 Fiber damage in ring and compact spinning 402
15.6 Fiber damage in rotor spinning 408
15.7 Fiber damage in friction spinning 409
15.8 Conclusion 412
15.9 References 414
16 Spin finishes for textiles 416
I. A. Elhawary, Alexandria University, Egypt
16.1 Introduction 416
16.2 Components of spin finishes 417
16.3 Types and application of spin finishes 418
16.4 Key requirements for spin finishes 420
16.5 Quality issues in the use of spin finishes 422
16.6 Use of spin finishes on particular types of fibre 423
16.7 Use of spin finishes with particular spinning systems 425
16.8 Testing spin finishes 427
16.9 Sources of further information and advice 429
16.10 Acknowledgement 429
16.11 References 429
Index 431

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