Basic Principles of Textile Coloration | Arthur D Broadbent

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Basic Principles of Textile Coloration
By Arthur D Broadbent
Basic Principles of Textile Coloration

Contents
Preface xiii
CHAPTER 1 An introduction to textiles, dyes and dyeing 1
1.1 Historical background 1
1.2 Modern textiles 10
1.3 Colour, dyes and dyeing 13
References 19
CHAPTER 2 Fibres and textiles: properties and processing 20
2.1 Properties of fibres 20
2.2 Production and properties of yarns 22
2.3 Fabric manufacture 25
2.4 Preparation for dyeing 29
2.5 Dyeing and finishing 32
References 33
CHAPTER 3 Fibrous polymers 34
3.1 Polymer structure 34
3.2 Molecular organisation in fibres 40
3.3 Intermolecular forces 42
3.4 Thermal properties of polymers 45
References 49
CHAPTER 4 Synthetic fibres 50
4.1 Synthetic fibres 50
4.2 Nylon fibres 51
4.3 Polyesters 58
4.4 Acrylic fibres 65
4.5 Other synthetic fibres 68
References 69
CHAPTER 5 Natural cellulosic fibres 70
5.1 Introduction 70
5.2 Cotton 70
5.3 Cellulose 74
5.4 Cotton processing 80
5.5 Other vegetable fibres 90
References 91
CHAPTER 6 Artificially made fibres based on cellulose 92
6.1 The first regenerated cellulose fibres 92
6.2 Viscose fibre 93
6.3 Cellulose acetates 102
References 106
CHAPTER 7 Protein fibres 107
7.1 Introduction 107
7.2 Structure of wool fibres 107
7.3 Physical and chemical properties of wool 116
7.4 Wool processing 122
7.5 Speciality animal fibres 128
References 129
CHAPTER 8 Water treatment 130
8.1 Water quality for the dyehouse 130
8.2 Water hardness 132
8.3 Water softening 138
8.4 Boiler water 144
8.5 Dyehouse effluent and its treatment 146
References 151
CHAPTER 9 Auxiliary chemicals for wet processing and dyeing 152
9.1 Impurities in textile fibres 153
9.2 Surface activity of detergents 155
9.3 Synthetic surfactants 164
9.4 Other applications of surfactants 172
References 173
CHAPTER 10 An introduction to dyes and dyeing 174
10.1 Dyes 174
10.2 Dyeing methods 177
10.3 Dyebath and fabric preparation 179
10.4 Terms used in direct exhaust dyeing 180
10.5 Continuous dyeing 190
References 196
CHAPTER 11 Dyeing theory 197
11.1 Dyeing equilibria 197
11.2 Dyeing kinetics 207
11.3 Aggregation of dyes 213
11.4 Conclusion 214
References 214
CHAPTER 12 Dyeing machinery 215
12.1 Basic features of batch dyeing machines 215
12.2 Dyeing machines for loose fibre and sliver 216
12.3 Machines for dyeing yarn 218
12.4 Machines for dyeing fabric 223
12.5 Dyeing machines for specific articles 233
12.6 Continuous dyeing equipment 234
References 239
CHAPTER 13 Acid, metallised and mordant dyes 240
13.1 General description of acid dyes 240
13.2 Classification of acid dyes 241
13.3 The application of acid dyes in dyeing wool 243
13.4 Mechanism of wool dyeing 248
13.5 Problems of dyeing wool level 251
13.6 Special wool dyeing processes 255
13.7 Mordant dyes for wool 257
13.8 Pre-metallised metal-complex dyes 264
13.9 Dyeing nylon with acid dyes 268
13.10 Dyeing nylon with metallised dyes 280
13.11 Light and ozone fading of acid dyed nylon 282
13.12 Nylon carpet dyeing 283
13.13 Dyeing modified nylons 285
References 286
CHAPTER 14 Dyeing cellulosic fibres with direct dyes 287
14.1 Introduction 287
14.2 Chemical constitutions of direct dyes 288
14.3 Dyeing properties of direct dyes 289
14.4 The effects of variations in dyeing conditions 296
14.5 The aftertreatment of dyeings with direct dyes 300
14.6 Dyeing different types of cellulosic fibres 303
14.7 The origins of substantivity for cellulose 304
References 306
CHAPTER 15 Disperse dyes 307
15.1 Introduction to disperse dyes 307
15.2 Chemical constitutions of disperse dyes 309
15.3 Disperse dye dispersions 310
15.4 Fastness properties of disperse dyes 313
15.5 Dyeing cellulose acetate fibres 314
15.6 Dyeing nylon with disperse dyes 317
15.7 Dyeing polyester with disperse dyes 319
15.8 Dyeing of other synthetic fibres 330
References 331
CHAPTER 16 Reactive dyes 332
16.1 The development of reactive dyes 332
16.2 Reactive dyes for cotton 333
16.3 Batch dyeing of cotton with reactive dyes 339
16.4 Bifunctional reactive dyes 347
16.5 Continuous dyeing processes for cotton 348
16.6 Reactive dyes for wool 353
References 357
CHAPTER 17 Vat dyes 358
17.1 Introduction 358
17.2 Chemical constitution of quinone vat dyes 358
17.3 The reduction of quinone vat dyes 360
17.4 The substantivity and dyeing characteristics of
vat dyes for cellulosic fibres 366
17.5 Dyeing cotton with leuco vat dyes 369
17.6 Oxidation and soaping after dyeing 372
17.7 Pre-pigmentation dyeing methods 373
17.8 Fastness properties of vat dyes 376
17.9 Dyeing with indigo and indigoid vat dyes 376
17.10 Solubilised vat dyes 378
17.11 Sulphur dyes 379
17.12 Batch dyeing procedures with sulphur dyes 382
17.13 Continuous dyeing with sulphur dyes 386
17.14 Environmental concerns 386
References 387
CHAPTER 18 Cationic dyes 388
18.1 Introduction 388
18.2 Chemical structures of cationic dyes 389
18.3 Preparation for dyeing acrylic fibres 389
18.4 Dyeing acrylic fibres with cationic dyes 391
18.5 Dyeing modified polyesters and nylons 397
References 397
CHAPTER 19 Dyes synthesised in the fibre 398
19.1 Introduction 398
19.2 Azoic dyes 399
19.3 Application of azoic dyes 404
19.4 Fastness properties of azoid dyeings on cotton 407
19.5 Other types of ingrain dye 408
Reference 410
CHAPTER 20 Union dyeing 411
20.1 Fibre blends 411
20.2 Union dyeing 412
20.3 Dyeing cotton/polyester blends 413
20.4 Dyeing wool/polyester blends 423
20.5 Dyeing cotton/nylon blends 423
20.6 Dyeing nylon and polyester variants 425
Reference 426
CHAPTER 21 Colour measurement 427
21.1 Factors influencing colour perception 427
21.2 Light sources and illuminants 428
21.3 Reflection or transmission of light by an object 431
21.4 Human colour vision 436
21.5 Characterisation of the CIE standard observers 438
21.6 Determination of the tristimulus values of a colour 446
21.7 The Munsell colour system 457
21.8 Visual uniformity of colour spaces 459
References 464
CHAPTER 22 Colour differences and colorant formulation 465
22.1 Colour difference equations 465
22.2 Shade sorting 473
22.3 Colorant formulation 477
References 492
CHAPTER 23 Printing 493
23.1 Introduction 493
23.2 Flat screen printing 494
23.3 Rotary screen printing 498
23.4 Engraved roller printing 502
23.5 Printing styles 504
23.6 Pigment printing 509
23.7 Printing with soluble dyes 512
23.8 Transfer printing 515
23.9 Carpet printing 518
23.10 Thickeners 520
References 526
CHAPTER 24 Testing of dyes and dyeings 527
24.1 Spectrophotometric analysis of dye solutions 527
24.2 The evaluation of the colour yield of dyes 530
24.3 Fastness properties of dyeings and their assessment 531
24.4 Identification of dyes on the fibre 540
24.5 Separation of dyes by chromatographic techniques 541
References 549
CHAPTER 25 Textile finishing 550
25.1 Introduction 550
25.2 Mechanical finishing methods 551
25.3 Thermal finishing processes 553
25.4 Chemical finishing of fabrics from cellulosic fibres 554
25.5 Other types of finishing chemicals 567
Reference 568

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