Bast and Other Plant Fibres Edited by Robert R Franck

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Bast and Other Plant Fibres
Edited by Robert R Franck
Bast and Other Plant Fibres

Contents
List of figures xi
List of tables xv
About the editor xxi
About the contributors xxiii
Contributor contact details xxix
Acknowledgements xxxi
1 Overview 1
R R FRANCK, Co n s u l t a n t , UK
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Fibre prices 2
1.3 The Food and Agricultural Organisation's statistics  3
1.4 Comparative data on the physical and chemical characteristics of bast and leaf fibres 3
1.5 Appendix: Comparative physical, chemical and morphological characteristics of certain fibres 4
1.6 References 23
2 Jute 24
K B KRISHNAN, I DORAISWAMY a n d
K P CHELLAMA N I , S I TR A , I n d i a
2.1 Introduction 24
2.2 Fibre production and early processing 27
2.3 Physical and chemical properties 34
2.4 Yarn production 38
2.5 Fabric production, end-uses and specifications 52
2.6 Dyeing and finishing: modern developments in chemical finishing 65
2.7 Economic and cost considerations 68
2.8 Market development 71
2.9 Environmental considerations 76
2.10 Health and safety considerations 77
2.11 Acknowledgements 78
2.12 Appendices 78
A Jute's allied fibres: kenaf, roselle and urena 78
B Jute world fibre production 82
C Recent developments in retting methods 83
D Non-textile uses of jute 86
E Jute testing instruments developed by SITRA 90
2.13 Bibliography 91
2.14 References 92
2.15 Glossary of terms 92
3 Flax 94
J S A LMO N -MI N O T T E , Ma s t e r s o f L i n e n , F r a n c e
a n d R R F R A N C K , C o n s u l t a n t , U K
3.1 Introduction 94
3.2 The flax plant 95
3.3 Physical and chemical characteristics of flax fibres 101
3.4 Cultivation and harvesting 107
3.5 Scutching 113
3.6 Yarn preparation and spinning 118
3.7 Weaving 126
3.8 Knitting 130
3.9 Fabric desizing, bleaching, dyeing and finishing 131
3.10 Apparel manufacture 137
3.11 Products and applications 137
3.12 Economic and cost considerations 142
3.13 Marketing 156
3.14 Environmental and health and safety considerations 158
3.15 Conclusion and future trends 158
3.16 Appendices 164
A Comparison of flax fibre yield in various countries 164
B World cotton production 166
C Flax cultivars ± textile flax varieties approved by the European Union 166
D Relationships between different common yarn count systems 167
E The European Union's flax subsidy scheme (2003) 168
F Contractual relationships between flax growers and
their customers in France 168
G Comparative labour costs (2002) 169
H `Masters of linen': technical criteria for finished products 173
3.17 Bibliography 174
3.18 References 174
3.19 Glossary of terms 174
4 Hemp 176
J S P O N N E R , L TOÂ
T H , S C Z I G E R , f o rme r l y H u n g a r i a n
H emp T r u s t a n d R R F R A N C K , C o n s u l t a n t , U K

Part 1
4.1 Introduction: hemp in Hungary 176
4.2 Hemp varieties and their cultivation 178
4.3 Physical and chemical characteristics of hemp 181
4.4 Primary processing of hemp stalks: fibre separation 184
4.5 Hemp spinning and spinning machinery 188
4.6 Weaving 194
4.7 Fabric finishing 196
4.8 Production of other hemp products 196
4.9 Environmental and health and safety considerations 197
4.10 Production and market trends 199
4.11 Conclusion 200

Part 2
4.12 Present trends 201
4.13 Future trends 204
4.14 Bibliography 206
4.15 Glossary of terms 206
5 Ramie 207
R K O Z L OWS K I , M R AWL U K a n d J B A R R I G A - B E D O Y A ,
I n s t i t u t e o f N a t u r a l F i b r e s , P o l a n d
5.1 Introduction and history 207
5.2 Classification and description 209
5.3 Properties of the ramie fibre 210
5.4 Cultivation and harvesting 213
5.5 Primary processing 214
5.6 Spinning 220
5.7 Weaving and finishing 222
5.8 Applications of ramie 222
5.9 Conclusion 223
5.10 Appendices 224
A Degumming: recipe and process 224
B Non-textile uses of ramie 224
5.11 References 225
5.12 Bibliography 226
5.13 Glossary of terms 226
6 Sisal 228
C Y U , D o n g h u a U n i v e r s i t y , C h i n a
6.1 Introduction: the plant and its anatomy 228
6.2 Chemical and physical fibre structure 229
6.3 Chemical treatment of sisal fibre 235
6.4 Production and early processing 240
6.5 Production and machinery 244
6.6 Products and applications 258
6.7 Economic and cost considerations 262
6.8 Marketing and consumption 262
6.9 Acknowledgements 269
6.10 Appendices 269
A Non-textile applications of sisal 269
B Testing sisal fibres for stiffness and compression 271
6.11 References and bibliography 272
6.12 Glossary of terms 273
7 Coir 274
P M MA T H A I , C o i r B o a r d , I n d i a
7.1 Introduction and history 274
7.2 Chemical and physical fibre structure 275
7.3 Fibre production and early processing 277
7.4 Yarn production and machinery 280
7.5 Bleaching, dyeing, printing and finishing 284
7.6 Fabric production 287
7.7 Products and applications 291
7.8 Handle and wear characteristics 297
7.9 Economic and cost considerations 297
7.10 Marketing 298
7.11 Production and consumption 299
7.12 Environmental and health and safety issues 302
7.13 Conclusion 304
7.14 Appendices 304
A Non-textile coir products 304
B Chemical composition of new and old coconut fibres 305
C World coir production 305
D The manufacture of coir mats 306
E Indian coir manufacturers and exporters trade associations 307
F Quality codes and specifications of important varieties of coir mats and mattings 311
7.15 Glossary of terms 312
8 Abaca 315
R R F R A N C K , C o n s u l t a n t , U K
8.1 The plant and its cultivation 315
8.2 The fibres 316
8.3 Early processing 316
8.4 Textile manufacture and end uses 318
8.5 Production 319
8.6 Appendix: The uses of Philippine grades of abaca fibre for various end uses 320
8.7 References 320
8.8 Glossary of terms 320
9 Pineapple, curaua¨ , craua¨ (caroa¨ ), macambira,
nettle, sunn hemp, Mauritius hemp and fique 322
9.1 Pineapple 322
C Y U , D o n g h u a U n i v e r s i t y , C h i n a a n d
R R F R A N C K , C o n s u l t a n t , U K
9.2 Curaua 327
R L A D C H UMA N A N A N D A S I V AM, U n i v e r s i t y o f R i o
G r a n d e , B r a z i l a n d R R F R A N C K , C o n s u l t a n t , U K
9.3 Craua (caroaÂ) 329
R R F R A N C K , C o n s u l t a n t , U K
9.4 Macambira 330
R R F R A N C K , C o n s u l t a n t , U K
9.5 Nettle 331
J D R E Y E R , F a s e r i n s t i t u t , B r eme n e . V . , G e rma n y a n d G E D OM, U K
9.6 Sunn hemp 343
R R F R A N C K , C o n s u l t a n t , U K
9.7 Mauritius hemp and fique 343
R R F R A N C K , C o n s u l t a n t , U K
10 Bast and leaf fibre composite materials 345
J MUÈ
S S I G , F a s e r i n s t i t u t B r eme n e . V . , G e rma n y ,
M K A R U S , E u r o p e a n I n d u s t r i a l H emp A s s o c i a t i o n ,
G e rma n y a n d R R F R A N C K , C o n s u l t a n t , U K
10.1 Introduction and background 345
10.2 The market, demand and supply 346
10.3 The influence of fibre properties and the possibilities of measuring essential fibre characteristics 352
10.4 Manufacturing 367
10.5 The future, trends and conclusions 369
10.6 Acknowledgements 373
10.7 References 373
Appendix I: List of fibre-producing plants 377
Appendix II: References to Chapter 2 380
Index 385

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