Biodegradable and Sustainable Fibres Edited by R. S. Blackburn

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Biodegradable and Sustainable Fibres
Edited by R. S. Blackburn
Biodegradable and Sustainable Fibres

Contents
Contributor contact details xi
Introduction xv
R S BLACKBURN, University of Leeds, UK
1 Microbial processes in the degradation of fibers 1
P M FEDORAK, University of Alberta, Canada
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Background and terminology 1
1.3 Incubation conditions used for studying biodegradation
of fibers and films 8
1.4 Sources of microorganisms and enzymes for laboratory incubations 12
1.5 Analytical methods used to assess biodegradation of fibers and films 17
1.6 Examples of types of bonds that are susceptible to enzymatic attack 24
1.7 Future trends 29
1.8 Acknowledgements 31
1.9 References 31
2 Bast fibres (flax, hemp, jute, ramie, kenaf, abaca) 36
R KOZLOWSKI, P BARANIECKI and J BARRIGA-BEDOYA, Institute of
Natural Fibres, Poland
2.1 Introduction 36
2.2 Flax 37
2.3 Hemp 51
2.4 Jute 60
2.5 Ramie 70
2.6 Kenaf 78
2.7 Abaca 81
2.8 Comparison of fibre properties 86
2.9 References 86
3 Alginate fibers 89
J M MURI and P J BROWN, Clemson University, USA
3.1 Introduction 89
3.2 The chemical nature of alginate materials 92
3.3 Physical properties of alginate-based materials 96
3.4 Industrial applications of alginates 100
3.5 Fabrication of alginates as useful flexible substrates in medical textile-based products 101
3.6 Alginates in bioengineering 105
3.7 References 107
4 Cellulosic fibres and fabric processing 111
D CIECHAÑSKA, Institute of Chemical Fibres, Poland and
P NOUSIAINEN, Tampere University of Technology, Finland
4.1 Introduction 111
4.2 Life cycle assessment (LCA) 112
4.3 The mechanisms of enzymatic reactions on wood and cellulose 120
4.4 Biodegradability of cellulose fibres in textile blends 131
4.5 Biotechnology for manufacture and modification of cellulosic fibres 133
4.6 Enzyme applications in fabric and dyestuff processing 140
4.7 Hygienic and medical fibres 144
4.8 Future trends 150
4.9 References 151
5 Lyocell fibres 157
P WHITE, M HAYHURST, J TAYLOR and A SLATER, Lenzing® Fibers Ltd,
Derby, UK
5.1 Introduction 157
5.2 Process description 159
5.3 Lyocell sustainability 165
5.4 Lyocell fibre properties 171
5.5 Lyocell in textiles 172
5.6 Lyocell – a versatile, high performance fibre for nonwovens 181
5.7 Marketing 187
5.8 Future trends 188
5.9 Sources of further information 188
6 Poly(lactic acid) fibers 191
D W FARRINGTON, Consultant, UK, J LUNT, S DAVIES, NatureWorks
LLC, USA and R S BLACKBURN, University of Leeds, UK
6.1 Introduction 191
6.2 Chemistry and manufacture of PLA polymer resin 192
6.3 PLA fiber properties 197
6.4 Applications 200
6.5 Environmental sustainability 211
6.6 Future trends 218
6.7 References 219
7 Poly(hydroxyalkanoates) and poly(caprolactone) 221
I CHODÁK, Polymer Institute of the Slovak Academy of Sciences,
Slovakia, and R S BLACKBURN, University of Leeds, UK
7.1 Introduction 221
7.2 PHA-based oriented structures 222
7.3 Poly(caprolactone)-based fibres 232
7.4 Structure of drawn fibres 235
7.5 Thermal properties 236
7.6 Enzymatic and hydrolytic degradation 237
7.7 Other biodegradable and sustainable polyesters 238
7.8 Application of polyester-based biodegradable fibres 239
7.9 Future trends and concluding remarks 241
7.10 References 242
8 The route to synthetic silks 245
F VOLLRATH and A SPONNER, University of Oxford, UK
8.1 Introduction 245
8.2 Silk structures 245
8.3 Development of fibre: the feedstock 248
8.4 Development of fibre: spinning 255
8.5 Performance characteristics 256
8.6 Applications 262
8.7 Future trends 262
8.8 Acknowledgements 264
8.9 References and sources of further information 264
9 Biodegradable natural fiber composites 271
A N NETRAVALI, Cornell University, USA
9.1 Introduction 271
9.2 Biodegradable fibers 274
9.3 Biodegradable resins 279
9.4 Soy protein-based green composites 295
9.5 Conclusions and future trends 304
9.6 Acknowledgements 304
9.7 References 305
10 Biodegradable nonwovens 310
G BHAT, University of Tennessee, USA and H RONG, Johnson
Controls Inc., USA
10.1 Introduction 310
10.2 Nonwoven fabrics 311
10.3 Fiber consumption in nonwovens 314
10.4 Web formation methods 315
10.5 Web bonding techniques 319
10.6 Technology and relative production rate 321
10.7 Recent research on biodegradable nonwovens 322
10.8 Applications of biodegradable nonwovens 336
10.9 Flushable nonwovens 337
10.10 Leading producers of nonwovens 338
10.11 Sources of further information and advice 338
10.12 References 340
11 Natural geotextiles 343
C LAWRENCE, University of Leeds, UK and B COLLIER, University of
Tennessee, USA
11.1 Introduction 343
11.2 Fundamental aspects of geotextiles 344
11.3 Fibres used for natural geotextile products 345
11.4 Fibre extraction and preparation 351
11.5 Production of natural geotextile products 355
11.6 Measurement of the properties of natural geotextiles 362
11.7 References 365
12 Conversion of cellulose, chitin and chitosan to filaments with simple salt solutions 367
H S WHANG, N AMINUDDIN, Fiber and Polymer Science Program, USA,
M FREY, Cornell University, USA, S M HUDSON and J A CUCULO,
Fiber and Polymer Science Program, USA
12.1 Introduction 367
12.2 Cellulose in liquid ammonia/ammonium thiocyanate solutions 368
12.3 Fibers from chitin and chitosan 380
12.4 Future trends 393
12.5 Sources of further information 394
12.6 References 395
13 Soya bean protein fibres – past, present and future 398
M M BROOKS, University of Southampton, UK
13.1 Introduction 398
13.2 The soya bean plant 398
13.3 Naming regenerated protein fibres 400
13.4 The need for new fibre sources 401
13.5 Generalised method for producing soya bean fibre in the mid-twentieth century 413
13.6 Contemporary research into alternative protein fibre sources 420
13.7 Contemporary methods for producing fibres from soya bean protein 422
13.8 Fibre characteristics 425
13.9 Identifying soya bean protein fibres 428
13.10 Degradation behaviour 431
13.11 A truly biodegradable and ecological fibre? 434
13.12 Conclusion 434
13.13 Acknowledgements 435
13.14 References 435
Index 441

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