Clothing Biosensory Engineering Edited by Y. Li and A.S.W. Wong

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Clothing Biosensory Engineering
Edited by Y. Li and A.S.W. Wong
Clothing Biosensory Engineering

Contents
Editor contact details xiii
Preface xv
1 Introduction to clothing biosensory engineering 1
YI LI, Institute of Textiles and Clothing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic
University, Hong Kong and ANTHONY S.W. WONG, School of Nursing,
The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong
1.1 Consumer trends 1
1.2 Definition of sensory comfort 3
1.3 Human–clothing–environment system 4
1.4 Clothing biosensory engineering 6
1.5 Acknowledgements 7
1.6 References 7
2 Psychology and sensory comfort 9
YI LI, Institute of Textiles and Clothing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic
University, Hong Kong and ANTHONY S.W. WONG, School of Nursing,
The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong
2.1 Perception of comfort 9
2.2 Psychological research techniques 9
2.3 Comfort sensory descriptors 11
2.4 Psychophysics 13
2.5 Scales of measurement 15
2.6 Scales to measure direct responses 16
2.7 Wear trial techniques 22
2.8 Conclusion 24
2.9 Acknowledgements 24
2.10 References 24
3 Neurophysiology of sensory perceptions 28
YI LI, Institute of Textiles and Clothing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic
University, Hong Kong and ANTHONY S.W. WONG, School of Nursing,
The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong
3.1 Senses and comfort 28
3.2 Neurophysiological basis of sensory perceptions 29
3.3 Perception of sensations related to mechanical stimuli 32
3.4 Perception of thermal and moisture sensations 42
3.5 Perception of texture 48
3.6 Perception of fabric hand 50
3.7 Acknowledgements 54
3.8 References 54
4 Physiology of thermal comfort 60
YI LI, Institute of Textiles and Clothing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic
University, Hong Kong and ANTHONY S.W. WONG, School of Nursing,
The Hong Kong Polytechnic University
4.1 Introduction 60
4.2 Thermal comfort 61
4.3 Thermophysiology of the human body 64
4.4 Thermoregulation of the human body 66
4.5 Dynamic thermal interaction between the body and clothing 68
4.6 Nomenclature 70
4.7 Acknowledgements 71
4.8 References 71
5 Physics of thermal comfort 74
YI LI, Institute of Textiles and Clothing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic
University, Hong Kong and ANTHONY S.W. WONG, School of Nursing,
The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong
5.1 Introduction 74
5.2 Heat and moisture transfer 74
5.3 Dynamic heat and moisture transfer in fabric 76
5.4 Moisture exchange between fi ber and air 79
5.5 Boundary conditions 83
5.6 Physical properties of fi bers and fabrics 84
5.7 Method of solution 84
5.8 Moisture sorption of wool fabrics 86
5.9 Behavior of fabrics made from different fi bers 86
5.10 Acknowledgements 90
5.11 References 90
6 Thermal and moisture sensations 93
YI LI, Institute of Textiles and Clothing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic
University, Hong Kong and ANTHONY S.W. WONG, School of Nursing,
The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong
6.1 Introduction 93
6.2 Coolness to the touch 93
6.3 Warmth to the touch 99
6.4 Dampness sensation 104
6.5 Clamminess and moisture buffering during exercise 107
6.6 Environmental buffering 110
6.7 Acknowledgements 112
6.8 References 112
7 Tactile sensations 116
YI LI, Institute of Textiles and Clothing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic
University, Hong Kong and ANTHONY S.W. WONG, School of Nursing,
The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong
7.1 Introduction 116
7.2 Fabric prickliness 116
7.3 Fabric itchiness 120
7.4 Fabric stiffness 121
7.5 Fabric softness 127
7.6 Fabric smoothness, roughness and scratchiness 131
7.7 Garment fi t and pressure comfort 141
7.8 Acknowledgements 147
7.9 References 147
8 Dimensions of sensory comfort perceptions 151
YI LI, Institute of Textiles and Clothing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic
University, Hong Kong and ANTHONY S.W. WONG, School of Nursing,
The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong
8.1 Individual sensations involved in the perception of sensory comfort 151
8.2 Identifi cation of sensory factors 152
8.3 Thermal–wet comfort 159
8.4 Tactile comfort 160
8.5 Clothing pressure comfort 161
8.6 Acknowledgements 164
8.7 References 164
9 Overall comfort perception and preferences 167
ANTHONY S.W. WONG, School of Nursing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic
University, Hong Kong and YI LI, Institute of Textiles and Clothing,
The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong
9.1 Introduction 167
9.2 Infl uences of different factors toward overall comfort perception 168
9.3 Calculation of subjective preference on clothing 169
9.4 Relationship between overall comfort perception and preference 171
9.5 Acknowledgements 175
9.6 References 175
10 Prediction of clothing sensory comfort 178
ANTHONY S.W. WONG, School of Nursing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic
University, Hong Kong and YI LI, Institute of Textiles and Clothing,
The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong
10.1 Introduction 178
10.2 Prediction of fabric hand 178
10.3 Predictability of sensory comfort 180
10.4 Predictability of subjective preferences 181
10.5 Prediction of sensory factors 183
10.6 Prediction of clothing sensory comfort on the basis of subjective measurements 183
10.7 Prediction of clothing sensory comfort on the basis of fabric physical properties 184
10.8 Application of hybrid models in the prediction of clothing sensory comfort 185
10.9 Acknowledgements 187
10.10 References 187
11 Thermal properties 189
J.Y. HU, YI LI and K.W. YEUNG, Institute of Textiles and Clothing,
The Hong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong
11.1 Introduction 189
11.2 Heat production and heat loss 189
11.3 Thermal comfort 191
11.4 Thermal insulation 192
11.5 Thermal conductivity 194
11.6 Cool/warm feeling 194
11.7 Thermal manikin 198
11.8 Other apparatus for fabric thermal functional evaluation 201
11.9 Acknowledgements 203
11.10 References 203
12 Water vapor transfer 206
J.Y. HU, YI LI and K.W. YEUNG, Institute of Textiles and Clothing,
The Hong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong
12.1 Introduction 206
12.2 Moisture phase changes 206
12.3 Water vapor transfer 208
12.4 Water vapor transfer with temperature gradient 213
12.5 Comparison of water vapor transfer with and without temperature gradient 214
12.6 Conclusion 215
12.7 Acknowledgements 215
12.8 References 215
13 Liquid moisture transfer 218
J.Y. HU, YI LI and K.W. YEUNG, Institute of Textiles and Clothing,
The Hong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong
13.1 Introduction 218
13.2 Absorbency 218
13.3 Wettability 220
13.4 Waterproof 221
13.5 Contact angle 223
13.6 Moisture management 223
13.7 Experimental 229
13.8 Acknowledgements 233
13.9 References 233
14 Coupled heat and moisture transfer 235
S.X. WANG and YI LI, Institute of Textiles and Clothing,
The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong
14.1 Introduction 235
14.2 Simulation of coupled heat and moisture transfer 235
14.3 Moisture transfer with temperature gradient 238
14.4 The role of phase change material (PCM) fabrics 238
14.5 Effect of PCM fabrics 245
14.6 Measuring the thermal and moisture buffering effects of fabrics 248
14.7 Acknowledgements 250
14.8 References 250
15 Air permeability 252
J.Y. HU, YI LI and K.W. YEUNG, Institute of Textiles and Clothing,
The Hong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong
15.1 Introduction 252
15.2 Measurement of air permeability 254
15.3 Humidity-dependent air permeability 258
15.4 Acknowledgements 259
15.5 References 259
16 Mechanical tactile properties 261
J.Y. HU, YI LI and K.W. YEUNG, Institute of Textiles and Clothing,
The Hong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong
16.1 Introduction 261
16.2 Objective measurement of fabric tactile properties 264
16.3 Measurement of subjective tactile sensations 267
16.4 Results of FSTT and KES testing systems 267
16.5 Relationships between subjective sensations and
objective measurements 277
16.6 Conclusion 282
16.7 Acknowledgements 282
16.8 References 282
17 In vivo physiological measurements 285
J.Y. HU, YI LI and K.W. YEUNG, Institute of Textiles and Clothing,
The Hong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong
17.1 Introduction 285
17.2 Temperature measurements 286
17.3 Humidity measurements 292
17.4 Pressure measurements 293
17.5 Sweating rate and skin wetness measurements 294
17.6 Skin blood fl ow measurements 294
17.7 Oxygen consumption measurements 296
17.8 Heart rate measurements 297
17.9 Conclusion 298
17.10 Acknowledgements 299
17.11 References 299
18 Application of clothing biosensory engineering 301
YI LI, Institute of Textiles and Clothing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic
University, Hong Kong and ANTHONY S.W. WONG, School of Nursing,
The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong
18.1 Introduction 301
18.2 Area of application 301
18.3 Consumer research 302
18.4 New product development 304
18.5 Consumer subjective evaluation 307
18.6 Test methods and instruments 307
18.7 Acknowledgements 309
18.8 References 309
19 Mechanical and thermal sensory engineering design 311
YI LI and ZHANG WANG, Institute of Textiles and Clothing,
The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong and
XIN ZHANG, Xian University of Engineering Science & Technology,
Xian, China
19.1 Introduction 311
19.2 Functional requirements of a mechanical sensory engineering design system 313
19.3 Fundamental work in the development of mechanical engineering design system (MEDS) 316
19.4 Structural organization of the system 325
19.5 Example 327
19.6 Thermal sensory engineering design 330
19.7 Thermal sensory engineering design process and system 330
19.8 Application of TSEDS 331
19.9 Conclusion 332
19.10 Acknowledgements 332
19.11 References 332
20 Sensory comfort of denim product 335
YI L. KWOK, Institute of Textiles and Clothing, The Hong Kong
Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, ANTHONY S.W. WONG, School of
Nursing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong,
YI LI, Institute of Textiles and Clothing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic
University, Hong Kong and XIN ZHANG, Fashion College,
Xian University of Engineering Science and Technology, Xian, China
20.1 Introduction 335
20.2 Human subjective perception on denim products 336
20.3 Study of sensory comfort in denim jeans 337
20.4 Conclusion 348
20.5 Acknowledgements 348
20.6 References 348
21 Sensory comfort of tennis wear 350
ANTHONY S.W. WONG, School of Nursing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic
University, Hong Kong, YI L. KWOK and YI LI, Institute of Textiles and
Clothing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong
21.1 Introduction 350
21.2 Experimental 353
21.3 Results and fi ndings 354
21.4 Conclusion 363
21.5 Acknowledgements 364
21.6 References 364
22 Sensory comfort of aerobic wear 366
ANTHONY S.W. WONG, School of Nursing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic
University, Hong Kong and YI LI, Institute of Textiles and Clothing,
The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong
22.1 Introduction 366
22.2 Experimental 369
22.3 Result 370
22.4 Sensory comfort during exercise 374
22.5 Fabric properties and overall comfort performance 376
22.6 Comfort performance of different brands 378
22.7 Conclusion 378
22.8 Acknowledgements 378
22.9 References 379
Index 381

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