Coated Textiles: Principles and Applications, Second Edition | Ashish Kumar Sen

6:37 AM
Coated Textiles: Principles and Applications, Second Edition
Ashish Kumar Sen
Coated Textiles: Principles and Applications

Contents
Preface to the Second Edition................................................................................. xiii
Preface to the First Edition.......................................................................................xv
Acknowledgments (First Edition)...........................................................................xvii
Introduction..............................................................................................................xix
The Author...............................................................................................................xxi

Chapter 1 Polymeric Materials for Coating..........................................................1
1.1 Rubbers: Natural and Synthetic.......................................................................1
1.1.1 Introduction...........................................................................................1
1.1.2 Production, Structure, and Properties...................................................1
1.1.2.1 Natural Rubber........................................................................1
1.1.2.2 Styrene–Butadiene Rubber......................................................2
1.1.2.3 Isoprene–Isobutylene Rubber, Butyl Rubber..........................3
1.1.2.4 Ethylene–Propylene Polymers and Terpolymers, EPM
and EPDM...............................................................................3
1.1.2.5 Polychloroprene Rubber (CR).................................................4
1.1.2.6 Nitrile–Butadiene Rubber (NBR)...........................................5
1.1.2.7 Chlorosulfonated Polyethylene (CSM) Rubber.......................5
1.1.2.8 Silicone Rubber.......................................................................6
1.1.3 Rubber Additives..................................................................................7
1.1.4 Compounding and Processing of Rubber.............................................9
1.1.4.1 Mastication and Compounding...............................................9
1.1.4.2 Spreading Dough................................................................... 12
1.1.4.3 Vulcanization of Rubberized Fabrics.................................... 12
1.2 Polyvinyl Chloride......................................................................................... 13
1.2.1 Introduction......................................................................................... 13
1.2.2 Resin Characteristics.......................................................................... 13
1.2.3 Additives for PVC............................................................................... 14
1.2.3.1 Plasticizers............................................................................. 14
1.2.3.2 Stabilizers.............................................................................. 16
1.2.3.3 Other Additives..................................................................... 17
1.2.4 Plastisols and Organosols................................................................... 17
1.2.4.1 Resins.................................................................................... 18
1.2.4.2 Plasticizers............................................................................. 18
1.2.4.3 Stabilizers.............................................................................. 19
1.2.4.4 Fillers..................................................................................... 19
1.2.4.5 Viscosity Depressants........................................................... 19
1.2.4.6 Thickeners............................................................................. 19
1.2.4.7 Blowing Agents..................................................................... 19
1.2.4.8 Manufacture..........................................................................20
1.2.4.9 Fusion....................................................................................20
1.2.4.10 Uses in Coating.....................................................................20
1.2.5 Compounding of PVC for Solid Compositions...................................20
1.2.5.1 Melt Compounding...............................................................20
1.2.5.2 Dry Blending......................................................................... 21
1.3 Polyurethanes.................................................................................................22
1.3.1 Introduction.........................................................................................22
1.3.2 Building Blocks of Polyurethane........................................................22
1.3.2.1 The Isocyanates.....................................................................23
1.3.2.2 Polyols...................................................................................25
1.3.2.3 Cross-Linkers and Chain Extenders.....................................27
1.3.2.4 Catalysts................................................................................27
1.3.3 Method of Preparation of Polyurethanes............................................27
1.3.4 Structure of Polyurethanes.................................................................28
1.3.5 Thermoplastic Urethane Elastomers...................................................29
1.3.6 Polyurethane Coatings........................................................................29
1.3.6.1 One-Component Systems......................................................29
1.3.6.2 Two-Component Systems......................................................30
1.3.6.3 Additives................................................................................30
1.3.7 Aqueous Dispersion of Polyurethanes................................................ 31
1.3.7.1 Emulsifiers............................................................................. 31
1.3.7.2 Preparation of Dispersions.................................................... 32
1.3.7.3 Film Properties...................................................................... 33
1.3.8 Features of Polyurethane Coating....................................................... 33
1.3.8.1 Structure–Property Relationship..........................................34
1.4 Acrylic Polymers............................................................................................ 35
1.5 Adhesive Treatment....................................................................................... 35
1.5.1 Mechanism of Adhesion..................................................................... 35
1.5.2 Resorcinol–Formaldehyde–Latex System..........................................36
1.5.3 Dry Bonding System...........................................................................37
1.5.4 Mode of Action of RFL Dip...............................................................38
1.5.5 Isocyanate Bonding System................................................................39
1.5.6 Adhesives for Lamination...................................................................39
1.5.6.1 Hot-Melt Adhesives...............................................................39
1.6 Foams for Laminates.....................................................................................40
1.6.1 Flexible Polyurethane (PU) Foam...................................................... 41
1.6.2 Polyolefine Foams............................................................................... 41
1.6.3 Flexible PVC Foam............................................................................. 41
1.7 Radiation-Cured Coatings............................................................................. 41
1.7.1 General Features................................................................................. 41
1.7.2 Chemistry............................................................................................ 42
1.7.2.1 Photoinitiators....................................................................... 42
1.7.2.2 Polymer Systems................................................................... 43
1.7.3 Equipment...........................................................................................44
1.7.4 Applications in Textile Coating..........................................................44
References................................................................................................................. 45

Chapter 2 Textile Substrate for Coated Fabrics................................................... 47
2.1 Materials and Trends...................................................................................... 47
2.2 Textile Fibers..................................................................................................48
2.2.1 Cotton..................................................................................................48
2.2.2 Rayon.................................................................................................. 51
2.2.3 Nylons................................................................................................. 51
2.2.4 Polyester.............................................................................................. 52
2.2.5 Polypropylene Fiber............................................................................ 52
2.2.6 Aramids.............................................................................................. 52
2.3 Spinning......................................................................................................... 53
2.3.1 Cotton Spinning System..................................................................... 53
2.3.1.1 Ginning.................................................................................. 53
2.3.1.2 Blow Room............................................................................ 53
2.3.1.3 Carding..................................................................................54
2.3.1.4 Lap Formation....................................................................... 55
2.3.1.5 Combing................................................................................ 55
2.3.1.6 Drawing.................................................................................56
2.3.1.7 Speed Frame and Fly Frame.................................................56
2.3.1.8 Ring Spinning.......................................................................56
2.3.1.9 Newer Methods of Spinning................................................. 57
2.3.2 Synthetic Fiber Spinning.................................................................... 57
2.3.2.1 Melt Spinning........................................................................ 57
2.3.2.2 Solution Spinning..................................................................58
2.4 Woven Fabrics................................................................................................58
2.4.1 Weaving..............................................................................................58
2.4.2 Fundamental Weaves..........................................................................59
2.4.2.1 Plain Weave...........................................................................59
2.4.2.2 Twill Weaves.........................................................................60
2.4.2.3 Satin and Sateen Weaves.......................................................60
2.4.3 Looms................................................................................................. 61
2.5 Knitted Fabrics............................................................................................... 62
2.5.1 Weft Knitted Structures......................................................................63
2.5.2 Warp Knitted Structures.....................................................................63
2.6 Nonwoven Fabrics..........................................................................................64
2.6.1 Web Formation...................................................................................64
2.6.2 Web Bonding......................................................................................65
2.6.2.1 Entanglement of Fibers.........................................................65
2.6.2.2 Bonding by Adhesives...........................................................65
2.7 Fabric Preparation for Coating.......................................................................66
References................................................................................................................. 67
Bibliography.............................................................................................................. 67

Chapter 3 Coating Methods................................................................................69
3.1 General Features............................................................................................69
3.1.1 Common Features of Fluid Coating Units..........................................69
3.1.2 Post- and Premetering Methods..........................................................72
3.2 Knife Coating.................................................................................................72
3.2.1 Arrangements of Knife Coating.........................................................73
3.2.2 Coating Knives................................................................................... 75
3.2.3 The Role of Rolling Bank and Web Tension...................................... 76
3.3 Roll Coating...................................................................................................77
3.3.1 Mayer Rod Coating.............................................................................77
3.3.2 Direct-Roll Coating............................................................................. 78
3.3.3 Kiss Coating........................................................................................ 78
3.3.4 Gravure Coating.................................................................................79
3.3.5 Reverse-Roll Coaters..........................................................................79
3.4 Dip Coating.................................................................................................... 81
3.5 Transfer Coating.............................................................................................82
3.6 Rotary Screen Printing..................................................................................84
3.7 Calendering....................................................................................................84
3.7.1 Precalendering Section.......................................................................85
3.7.2 Calender..............................................................................................85
3.7.3 Coating and Lamination.....................................................................87
3.7.4 Postcalendering Section......................................................................89
3.7.5 Coating Defects...................................................................................90
3.7.6 Comparison with Other Coating Methods..........................................90
3.7.7 Zimmer Coating.................................................................................. 91
3.8 Hot-Melt Coating........................................................................................... 91
3.8.1 Extrusion Coating............................................................................... 91
3.8.2 Dry Powder Coating...........................................................................93
3.9 Foam Coating.................................................................................................94
3.10 Lamination by Adhesives...............................................................................95
3.11 Welding..........................................................................................................96
References.................................................................................................................96

Chapter 4 Physical Properties of Coated Fabrics...............................................99
4.1 General Characteristics..................................................................................99
4.2 Tensile Strength..............................................................................................99
4.3 Elongation.................................................................................................... 101
4.4 Adhesion...................................................................................................... 101
4.5 Tear Resistance............................................................................................ 105
4.6 Weathering Behavior.................................................................................... 108
4.7 Microbiological Degradation....................................................................... 110
4.8 Yellowing..................................................................................................... 111
References............................................................................................................... 111 

Chapter 5 Rheology of Coating......................................................................... 113
5.1 Introduction.................................................................................................. 113
5.2 Rheological Behavior of Fluids................................................................... 113
5.2.1 Bingham Body Behavior................................................................... 114
5.2.2 Dilatancy and Pseudoplasticity......................................................... 114
5.2.3 Thixotropy and Rheopexy................................................................ 115
5.3 Rheology of Plastisols.................................................................................. 116
5.3.1 Apparent Viscosity of Plastisols....................................................... 117
5.3.2 Polymer Size and Size Distribution.................................................. 117
5.3.3 Plasticizer and Additives................................................................... 118
5.3.4 Viscosity Change during Fusion....................................................... 118
5.4 Hydrodynamic Analysis of Coating............................................................. 119
References............................................................................................................... 121

Chapter 6 Waterproof Breathable Fabrics.......................................................... 123
6.1 Introduction.................................................................................................. 123
6.2 Clothing Comfort......................................................................................... 123
6.3 Impermeable Coating...................................................................................125
6.4 Technology of Waterproof Breathable Fabrics............................................125
6.4.1 Parameters Required.........................................................................125
6.4.2 Designing Waterproof Breathable Fabric.........................................126
6.4.2.1 Diffusion of Water Vapor through a Fabric........................ 127
6.4.2.2 Diffusion through Membranes............................................128
6.4.2.3 Water Vapor Transport through Textiles.............................128
6.4.2.4 Repellency........................................................................... 130
6.4.2.5 Techniques Adopted............................................................ 131
6.4.3 Applications...................................................................................... 131
6.4.3.1 Clothing Ensembles............................................................. 131
6.4.3.2 Health-Care Garments........................................................ 132
6.4.4 Types of Waterproof Breathable Fabrics.......................................... 133
6.4.4.1 Closely Woven Fabrics........................................................ 133
6.4.4.2 Microporous Coating and Laminates.................................. 134
6.4.4.3 Hydrophilic Coatings and Films......................................... 139
6.4.5 Using Waterproof Breathable Fabric for Apparel............................. 142
6.4.6 Evaluation......................................................................................... 142
References............................................................................................................... 144 

Chapter 7 Nonapparel Coating.......................................................................... 147
7.1 Synthetic Leather......................................................................................... 147
7.1.1 Compact Coated Fabrics................................................................... 147
7.1.2 Poromerics........................................................................................ 149
7.1.2.1 Coagulation Process............................................................ 150
7.1.2.2 From Prepolymers............................................................... 151
7.1.2.3 Structure of Porous Films................................................... 152
7.1.3 Porous Vinyls.................................................................................... 152
7.1.4 PTFE Laminate................................................................................ 153
7.2 Architectural Textiles................................................................................... 153
7.2.1 Materials........................................................................................... 154
7.2.2 Structures.......................................................................................... 155
7.2.2.1 Air-Supported Structures and Shelters............................... 156
7.2.2.2 Flexible Barrier Storage System.......................................... 157
7.2.2.3 Tension Structures............................................................... 158
7.2.3 Awnings and Canopies..................................................................... 159
7.3 Fluid Containers........................................................................................... 159
7.3.1 Inflatables.......................................................................................... 159
7.3.2 Liquid Containers............................................................................. 162
7.4 Tarpaulins.................................................................................................... 162
7.5 Automotive Applications............................................................................. 164
7.5.1 Air Bag Fabrics................................................................................. 164
7.5.2 Textile Foam Laminates for Automotive Interiors........................... 166
7.5.2.1 Flame Lamination............................................................... 167
7.5.2.2 Dry Adhesives..................................................................... 167
7.5.3 Headliner Structure........................................................................... 168
7.6 Carpet Backing............................................................................................ 169
7.7 Flocking....................................................................................................... 170
7.8 Fusible Interlining........................................................................................ 171
References............................................................................................................... 172

Chapter 8 Coating with Functional Materials................................................. 175
8.1 Introduction.................................................................................................. 175
8.2 Microencapsulation...................................................................................... 175
8.3 Thermochromic Fabrics............................................................................... 176
8.4 Temperature-Adaptable Fabrics................................................................... 178
8.5 Fragrance Release Fabric............................................................................. 180
8.6 Fabrics for Chemical Protection.................................................................. 181
8.6.1 Types of Chemical Exposure Risks.................................................. 182
8.6.2 Materials for Impermeable CPC....................................................... 183
8.6.2.1 Civil Applications................................................................ 184
8.6.2.2 Military Applications.......................................................... 184
8.6.3 Materials for Permeable CPCs.......................................................... 185
8.6.3.1 Carbon-Impregnated Polyurethane Foam........................... 186
8.6.3.2 Carbon-Impregnated Cotton Flannel and Nonwoven
Fabric................................................................................... 186
8.6.3.3 Bonded Spherical Carbon Adsorbents................................ 186
8.6.3.4 Active Carbon Fabrics (Charcoal Cloth)............................. 187
8.6.4 Recent Trends................................................................................... 187
8.7 Camouflage Nets.......................................................................................... 188
8.7.1 Visual and Near-IR Nets................................................................... 188
8.7.2 Radar Camouflage Net...................................................................... 190
8.7.3 Snow Camouflage............................................................................. 190
8.7.4 Thermal Camouflage (Infrared Reflecting Coverings)..................... 191
8.8 High-Visibility Garments............................................................................. 191
8.9 Intumescent Coating.................................................................................... 191
8.10 Metal and Conducting Polymer-Coated Fabrics.......................................... 193
8.10.1 Methods of Metal Coating................................................................ 194
8.10.2 Uses of Metal-Coated Fabrics........................................................... 197
8.10.2.1 Protective Clothing............................................................. 197
8.10.2.2 Radar-Responsive Fabrics................................................... 198
8.10.2.3 Static Electricity Control..................................................... 198
8.10.2.4 Electromagnetic Interference Shielding.............................. 198
8.10.3 Conducting Polymer Coatings..........................................................200
References...............................................................................................................200

Chapter 9 Coating Smart Polymers and Nanomaterials..................................203
9.1 Introduction..................................................................................................203
9.2 Smart Polymer Coating and Laminates.......................................................203
9.2.1 Based on Hydrogel............................................................................203
9.2.2 Shape Memory Polyurethane (SMPU).............................................205
9.3 Nanotechnology in Textiles..........................................................................207
References...............................................................................................................209

Chapter 10 Test Methods..................................................................................... 211
10.1 Introduction.................................................................................................. 211
10.2 Coating Mass per Unit Area (BS 3424, IS 7016 pt. 1)................................. 211
10.3 Degree of Fusion of Curing of Coating (BS 3424, ASTM D 4005-81)....... 212
10.4 Blocking (BS 3424, IS 7016 pt. 9)................................................................ 212
10.5 Coating Adhesion (BS 3424, ASTM D-751, IS 7016 pt. 5)......................... 212
10.6 Accelerated Aging (BS 3424, IS 7016 pt. 8 Based on ISO /R 1419-
1970)............................................................................................................. 213
10.7 Flexibility—Flat Loop Method (IS 7016 pt. 11 Based on ISO 5979-
1982)............................................................................................................. 214
10.8 Stiffness of Fabric—Cantilever Test (IS 649).............................................. 214
10.9 Damage Due to Flexing (BS3424, IS 7016 pt. 4, ASTM D 2097).............. 216
10.10 Abrasion Resistance (ASTM D-3389, BS 3424).......................................... 216
10.11 Test for Colorfastness to Dry and Wet Rubbing (BS 3424, IS 1259)........... 217
10.12 Low-Temperature Bend Test (ASTM D 2136, IS 7016 pt. 10, Based on
ISO 4675-90)................................................................................................ 218
10.13 Low-Temperature Impact Test (BS 3424, ASTM D-2137, IS 7016 pt.14).... 219
10.14 Cone Test (IS 7941)......................................................................................220
10.15 Water Repellency—Spray Rating (IS 390, AATCC 22-1996).....................220
10.16 Resistance to Water Penetration (ASTM D-751, BS 3424, IS 7016, pt.
7).................................................................................................................. 221
10.17 Flame Resistance of Fabric (IS 11871, BS 3119)......................................... 221
10.18 Air Permeability (BS 3424).........................................................................222
10.19 Water Vapor Permeability (ASTM E-96-80)...............................................223
10.19.1 Desiccant Method..........................................................................223
10.19.2 Water Method................................................................................223
10.20 Resistance to Permeation by Hazardous Liquid Chemicals (ASTM
F 739-96)......................................................................................................224
10.21 Resistance to Penetration or Permeation of Chemical Warfare Agents......224
10.21.1 Testing for Protection of Permeable Clothing against Mustard
Gas Vapor......................................................................................225
10.21.2 Testing for Protection of Clothing against Laid Down
Mustard Gas Drops........................................................................225
10.22 Resistance to Penetration by Bloodborne Pathogens
(ASTM F 1671-97 b)....................................................................................225
10.23 Electrical Resistivity of Fabrics (AATCC 76-1995)....................................226
References..............................................................................................................226
Appendix 1.............................................................................................................227
Appendix 2.............................................................................................................229

Read "Coated Textiles: Principles and Applications" as PDF
How to Get Book? To get any book you can send Email: textileebooks@gmail.com

Share this

Related Posts

Previous
Next Post »