Colorants and Auxiliaries (Second Edition) Volume 2 – Auxiliaries | Edited by John Shore

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Colorants and Auxiliaries (Second Edition) Volume 2 – Auxiliaries
Edited by John Shore
Colorants and Auxiliaries (Second Edition) Volume 2 – Auxiliaries

Contents
Preface ix
CHAPTER 8 Functions and properties of dyeing and printing auxiliaries 471
8.1 The need for auxiliaries 471
8.2 The general types and characteristics of auxiliaries 474
References 476
CHAPTER 9 The chemistry and properties of surfactants 477
9.1 Introduction 477
9.2 Hydrophiles 477
9.3 Hydrophobes 477
9.4 Anionic surfactants 479
9.5 Cationic surfactants 485
9.6 Nonionic surfactants 486
9.7 Amphoteric surfactants 489
9.8 The general properties of surfactants 490
References 496
CHAPTER 10 Classification of dyeing and printing auxiliaries by function 497
10.1 Electrolytes and pH control 497
10.2 Sequestering agents 505
10.3 Macromolecular complexing agents 519
10.4 Enzymes 539
10.5 Preparation of substrates 553
10.6 Dispersing and solubilising agents 636
10.7 Levelling and retarding agents 642
10.8 Thickening agents, migration inhibitors and hydrotropic agents used in printing and continuous dyeing 645
10.9 Treatments to alter dyeing properties or enhance fastness 664
10.10 Agents for fibre lubrication, softening, antistatic effects, soil release, soil repellency and bactericidal activity 705
10.11 Foaming and defoaming agents 744
References 750
CHAPTER 11 Fluorescent brightening agents 760
11.1 Introduction 760
11.2 Mode of action of a fluorescent brightener 761
11.3 Evaluation of FBAs: measurement of whiteness 765
11.4 General factors influencing FBA performance 768
11.5 Chemistry and applications of FBAs 770
11.6 Brighteners for cellulosic substrates 770
11.7 Brighteners for cellulose acetate and triacetate fibres 781
11.8 Brighteners for nylon 784
11.9 Brighteners for wool 788
11.10 Brighteners for polyester fibres 790
11.11 Brighteners for acrylic fibres 799
11.12 Brighteners in detergent formulations 803
11.13 Analysis of FBAs 809
References 811
CHAPTER 12 Auxiliaries associated with main dye classes 813
12.1 Introduction 813
12.2 Acid dyes 813
12.3 Azoic components 820
12.4 Basic dyes 824
12.5 Direct dyes 832
12.6 Disperse dyes 837
12.7 Reactive dyes 856
12.8 Sulphur dyes 882
12.9 Vat dyes 893
References 913

Preface to Volume 2

This Second Edition of a textbook first published in 1990 forms part of a series on colour and coloration technology initiated by the Textbooks Committee of the Society of Dyers and Colourists under the aegis of the Dyers’ Company Publications Trust Management Committee, which administers the trust fund generously provided by the Worshipful Company of Dyers.

The initial objective of this series of books has been to establish a coherent body of explanatory information on the principles and application technology of relevance for students preparing to take the Associateship examinations of the Society. This particular book has been directed specifically to the subject areas covered by Section A of Paper B: the organic chemistry and application of dyes and pigments and of the auxiliaries used with them in textile coloration processes. However, many qualified chemists and colourists interested in the properties of colorants and their auxiliaries have found the First Edition useful as a work of reference. For several reasons it has been convenient to divide the material into two separate volumes: 1. Colorants, 2. Auxiliaries. Although fluorescent brighteners share some features in common with colorants, they have been treated as auxiliary products in this book.

This second volume of the book collects together a remarkable quantity and variety of factual information linking the application properties of auxiliary products in textile coloration and related processes to as much as is known of the chemical structure of these agents. The environmental impact of auxiliary products has become of major importance and developments during the 1990s have necessitated substantial modification and expansion of the text of this volume. The opportunity has also been taken to highlight novel chemical types of auxiliaries that are under evaluation to overcome or avoid many of the drawbacks shown by traditional products. Thus the two volumes of this Second Edition are now approximately equal in size, whereas in the 1990 edition Volume 2 was only about half as big as its sibling.

Virtually all of this development and improvement of Volume 2, especially in the much expanded Chapters 10 and 12, is thanks to the thorough and painstaking work of Terry Baldwinson, who has carefully sifted through an extensive yet scattered range of primary sources. Our grateful thanks are due to John Holmes and Catherine Whitehouse for their patient copy editing and to the publications staff of the Society, especially Carol Davies, who have prepared all the material in this new edition for publication.

JOHN SHORE


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