Composites Forming Technologies Edited by A. C. Long

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Composites Forming Technologies
Edited by A. C. Long
Composites Forming Technologies

Contents
Contributor contact details xi
Introduction xv
1 Composite forming mechanisms and materials characterisation 1
A C LONG and M J CL I F FORD, University of Nottingham,
UK
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Intra-ply shear 3
1.3 Axial loading 9
1.4 Ply/tool and ply/ply friction 10
1.5 Ply bending 12
1.6 Compaction/consolidation 14
1.7 Discussion 19
1.8 References 19
2 Constitute modelling for composite forming 22
R AKKERMAN and E A D LAMERS, University of Twente,
The Netherlands
2.1 Introduction 22
2.2 Review on constitutive modelling for composite forming 22
2.3 Continuum based laminate modelling 29
2.4 Multilayer effects 34
2.5 Parameter characterisation 35
2.6 Future trends 43
2.7 References 44
3 Finite element analysis of composite forming 46
P BO I S S E , INSA de Lyon, France
3.1 Introduction: finite element analyses of composite forming, why and where? 46
3.2 The multiscale nature of composite materials and different approaches for composite forming simulations 48
3.3 The continuous approach for composite forming process analysis 50
3.4 Discrete or mesoscopic approach 57
3.5 Semi-discrete approach 59
3.6 Multi-ply forming and re-consolidation simulations 70
3.7 Conclusions 75
3.8 References 75
4 Virtual testing for material formability 80
S V LOMO V , Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium
4.1 Introduction 80
4.2 Mechanical model of the internal geometry of the relaxed state
of a woven fabric 82
4.3 Model of compression of woven fabric 84
4.4 Model of uniaxial and biaxial tension of woven fabric 89
4.5 Model of shear of woven fabric 93
4.6 Parametric description of fabric behaviour under simultaneous shear and tension 96
4.7 Conclusions: creating input data for forming simulations 111
4.8 References 112
5 Optimization of composites forming 117
W-R YU , Seoul National University, Korea
5.1 Introduction 117
5.2 General aspects of optimization 118
5.3 Optimization of composite forming 126
5.4 Conclusions 142
5.5 References 142
6 Simulation of compression moulding to form composites 144
E SC HMA C H T E N B E R G , UniversitaÈt Erlangen-NuÈrnberg,
Germany and K SK R O D O L I E S , Institut fuÈ r Kunststoffverarbeitung,
Germany
6.1 Introduction 144
6.2 Theoretical description of the simulation 145
6.3 Examples of use of the simulation 161
6.4 Measurement of the material data 172
6.5 References 174
6.6 Symbols 175
7 Understanding composite distortion during processing 177
M R WI S N OM and K D PO T T E R , University of Bristol, UK
7.1 Introduction 177
7.2 Fundamental mechanisms causing residual stresses and distortion 177
7.3 Distortion in flat parts 181
7.4 Spring-in of curved parts 186
7.5 Distortion in more complex parts 192
7.6 Conclusions 194
7.7 References 195
8 Forming technology for composite/metal hybrids 197
J SI N K E , Technical University Delft, The Netherlands
8.1 Introduction 197
8.2 Development of composite/metal hybrids 198
8.3 Properties of fibre metal laminates 201
8.4 Production processes for fibre metal laminates 205
8.5 Modelling of FML 213
8.6 Conclusions 218
8.7 References 219
9 Forming self-reinforced polymer materials 220
I M WA R D and P J HI N E , University of Leeds, UK and
D E RI L E Y , Propex Fabrics, Germany
9.1 Introduction 220
9.2 The hot compaction process 220
9.3 Commercial exploitation 224
9.4 Postforming studies 225
9.5 Key examples of commercial products 232
9.6 Future developments 235
9.7 Acknowledgements 236
9.8 References 236
10 Forming technology for thermoset composites 239
R PA T O N , Cooperative Research Centre for Advanced
Composite Structures Ltd, Australia
10.1 Introduction 239
10.2 Practicalities of forming thermoset prepeg stacks 240
10.3 Deformation mechanisms in woven fabric prepeg 241
10.4 Tape prepreg 247
10.5 Forming processes 248
10.6 Tooling equipment 250
10.7 Diaphagm forming tooling 251
10.8 Potential problems 252
10.9 Process capabilities 253
10.10 Future trends 253
10.11 References 254
11 Forming technology for thermoplastic composites 256
R BR O O K S , University of Nottingham, UK
11.1 Introduction 256
11.2 Thermoplastic composite materials (TPCs) for forming 256
11.3 Basic principles of TPC forming technologies 262
11.4 Forming methods 264
11.5 Some recent developments 273
11.6 Conclusions 275
11.7 References 275
12 The use of draping simulation in composite design 277
J W KL I N TWO R T H , MSC Software Ltd, UK and
A C LO N G , University of Nottingham, UK
12.1 Introduction 277
12.2 Zone and ply descriptions 277
12.3 Composites development process 278
12.4 Composites data exchange 281
12.5 Draping and forming simulation 282
12.6 Linking forming simulation to component design analysis 284
12.7 Conclusions 291
12.8 References 292
13 Benchmarking of composite forming modelling techniques 293
J L GO R C Z Y C A -CO L E and J CH E N , University of
Massachusetts Lowell, USA and J CA O , Northwestern
University, USA
13.1 Introduction 293
13.2 Forming process and fabric properties 295
13.3 Experimental 297
13.4 Numerical analyses 313
13.5 Conclusions and future trends 315
13.6 Acknowledgements 316
13.7 References and further reading 317
Index 318

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