Effect of Mechanical and Physical Properties on Fabric Hand Edited by Hassan M. Behery

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Effect of Mechanical and Physical Properties on Fabric Hand
Edited by Hassan M. Behery

Contents
Contributor contact details xiii
Preface xv
1 Introduction 1
H M BEHERY, Clemson University, USA
1.1 Historical 1
1.2 Definition and concept of fabric hand 1
1.3 Fabric hand attributes and quality descriptors 4
1.4 Development of fabric hand evaluation 5
1.5 Elements relating to fabric hand 5
1.6 Application of statistical methods in assessing fabric hand 6
1.7 Comparison of fabric hand assessments in different cultures 6
1.8 Effect of performance and refurbishing on fabric hand 7
1.9 References 7

Part I Understanding and evaluating fabric hand
2 Concepts and understanding of fabric hand 11
A DE BOOS, Australian Wool Innovation Limited, Australia
2.1 Introduction 11
2.2 Subjective evaluation of fabric hand 11
2.3 Objective evaluation of fabric hand 18
2.4 Future trends 39
2.5 References 40
3 Developments in measurement and evaluation of fabric hand 45
Y E EL MOGAHZY, F S KILINC and M HASSAN, Auburn University, USA
3.1 Introduction 45
3.2 Subjectivity and objectivity in fabric hand 46
3.3 Developments in fabric hand objective evaluation 47
3.4 The El Mogahzy–Kilinc hand method 51
3.5 Conclusion 63
3.6 References 64
4 Application of statistical methods in evaluation of fabric hand 66
J MILITK´Y, Technical University of Liberec, Czech Republic
4.1 Introduction 66
4.2 Subjective evaluation of fabric hand 67
4.3 Analysis of factors affecting fabric hand 81
4.4 Prediction of subjective hand 107
4.5 Concluding remarks 120
4.6 Acknowledgement 121
4.7 References 121
5 Comparison of fabric hand evaluation in different cultures 124
H M BEHERY, Clemson University, USA
5.1 Introduction 124
5.2 Effects of culture, language and male vs female on fabric hand evaluation and their interaction (USA and Korea) 125
5.3 International comparison of fabric hand (Australia, China, Hong Kong, India, Japan, Korea, New Zealand,
Taiwan, UK and USA) 134
5.4 Fabric hand equations for Australia, New Zealand, India and USA 144
5.5 Comparison between KES-FB and FAST systems in discrimination of characteristics of fabric hand 150
5.6 English version (translation) of the Japanese description of primary hand values 163
5.7 Measurement of fabric hand by different methods 168
5.8 Results of fabric hand evaluation by different methods 170
5.9 Conclusions from the comparison of fabric hand assessments between the USA and Japan measured by different methods 189
5.10 Fabric hand globalization interaction in the textile industry 190
5.11 References 192

Part II Effect of fibre yarn and fabric factors on fabric hand
6 Effect of fiber factors on fabric hand 197
M L REALFF and A CASCIO, Georgia Institute of Technology, USA
6.1 Introduction 197
6.2 Describing fibers 197
6.3 Mechanical properties 205
6.4 Chemical modification of fibers for improved fabric hand 211
6.5 Crystallinity in fibers 212
6.6 Future trends 214
6.7 Sources of further information and advice 216
6.8 References 217
7 Effect of yarn factors on fabric hand 219
H M BEHERY, Clemson University, USA
7.1 Introduction 219
7.2 Yarn types 219
7.3 Effect of yarn structure on fabric hand 224
7.4 Fundamental structural features of yarn 225
7.5 Comparison of hand of fabrics produced with air jet and ring spun yarns 226
7.6 Subjective hand evaluation of fabrics 229
7.7 Assessment of hand property of fabrics woven from various types of staple-fiber yarn 233
7.8 Conclusions 237
7.9 References 237
8 Effect of woven fabrics on the fabric hand of cotton and CO/PES fabrics assessed on the Instron
tensile tester 239
I FRYDRYCH, Technical University of ´Lód´z, Poland, and
M MATUSIAK, Institute of Textile Architecture, Poland
8.1 Introduction 239
8.2 Description of measurement procedure on the Instron tensile tester 241
8.3 General hand factor (GHF) of fabrics based on the mechanical parameters from the Instron tester 247
8.4 Analysis of influence of the weft density, weave, and
finishing type on the general hand factor 257
8.5 Effect of weave, weft density, raw material content, and
finishing type on the mechanical fabric hand parameters 261
8.6 References 284

Part III Effect of processing on fabric hand
9 Effect of wet processing and chemical finishing on fabric hand 289
C TOMASINO, North Carolina State University, USA
9.1 Introduction 289
9.2 Dyeing and finishing 289
9.3 Special topics 315
9.4 Literature review 326
9.5 Future trends 337
9.6 Sources of further information and advice 338
9.7 References 338
10 Effect of mechanical finishing on fabric hand 342
C TOMASINO, North Carolina State University, USA
10.1 Introduction 342
10.2 Calendering 342
10.3 Compacting 346
10.4 Raising (napping, sueding) 348
10.5 Shearing 352
10.6 Polishing 353
10.7 Corduroy cutters 353
10.8 Decatizing 353
10.9 Mechanical hand breaking (softening) 364
10.10 Interrelation between fabric mechanical properties and finishing process 365
10.11 Future trends 369
10.12 Sources of further information 371
10.13 References 371
11 Effect of refurbishment on fabric hand 372
A DE BOOS, Australian Wool Innovation Limited, Australia
11.1 Introduction 372
11.2 Refurbishment of traditional fabrics 373
11.3 Role of fabric history/finish 379
11.4 Refurbishment of newer fabric types 382
11.5 Future trends 382
11.6 References 383

Part IV Appendices
Appendix A The Standardization and Analysis of Hand Evaluation (second edition) 389
S KAWABATA, The Textile Machinery Society, Japan
A.1 History of the committee 389
A.2 Selection of the standard samples for hand evaluation 395
A.3 How to use the HESC standard of hand evaluation 409
A.4 Analysis of hand evaluation 415
A.5 Hand evaluation in the future 439
A.6 References and bibliography 440
Appendix B SiroFAST – fabric assurance by simple testing 443
A DE BOOS and D TESTER, CSIRO, Australia
B.1 Introduction 443
B.2 SiroFAST – fabric assurance by simple testing 450
B.3 Application in fabric manufacture and finishing 455
B.4 References 461
Index 464

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