Friction in Textile Materials Edited by B. S. Gupta

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Friction in Textile Materials
Edited by B. S. Gupta
Friction in Textile Materials

Contents
Contributor contact details xiii
Woodhead Publishing in Textiles xv
Preface xxi
Introduction xxiii
B S Gupta, North Carolina State University, USA

Part I Understanding friction in textiles
1 Textile fiber morphology, structure and properties in relation to friction 3
B S GUPTA, North Carolina State University, USA
1.1 Introduction 3
1.2 Fiber classification 4
1.3 Formation of man-made fibers 5
1.4 Concepts of semi-crystalline two-phase structures of fibers 6
1.5 Structure and morphology of textile fibers 9
1.6 Fiber properties 17
1.7 Summary 34
1.8 References 34
2 Fundamental concepts of friction and lubrication affecting textile fibers 37
B S GUPTA, North Carolina State University, USA
2.1 Introduction 37
2.2 The basic laws of friction 38
2.3 Adhesion-shearing theory 39
2.4 Slip-stick patterns in sliding 40
2.5 The role of surface roughness 42
2.6 Deformation and ploughing 42
2.7 The area of contact between metals 43
2.8 The formation and growth of junctions 43
2.9 Normal adhesion 45
2.10 The effect of hardness on friction 45
2.11 Heating at junctions during sliding 46
2.12 The effect of speed on friction 46
2.13 Wear and abrasion 47
2.14 Frictional behavior of elastomers 48
2.15 Rolling friction 50
2.16 The frictional behavior of polymers and fibers 51
2.17 The relationship describing friction in polymers and fibers 53
2.18 Lubrication 54
2.19 Lubrication of polymers and fibers 59
2.20 Friction between lubricated fibers 59
2.21 Summary 63
2.22 Acknowledgments 64
2.23 References 64
3 Friction behaviour of fibrous materials used in textiles 67
B S GUPTA, North Carolina State University, USA
3.1 Introduction 67
3.2 Differences in structure and properties of fibers, metals and elastomers 68
3.3 Classical friction behavior 69
3.4 Frictional behavior of fibers in experimental investigations 70
3.5 A structural model of friction behavior 71
3.6 Generalized equations and the structure of the friction constants a and n 75
3.7 Factors playing a role in friction 76
3.8 Experimental results from selected studies 77
3.9 Friction in textiles under extreme normal forces 88
3.10 Summary 91
3.11 Glossary 91
3.12 Acknowledgements 92
3.13 References 93
4 Stick-slip phenomena in textiles 95
R KOVAR, Technical University of Liberec, Czech Republic,
B S GUPTA, North Carolina State University, USA and Z KUS,
Technical University of Liberec, Czech Republic
4.1 Introduction 95
4.2 Physical basis of SSP 96
4.3 Impact of SSP on textiles 102
4.4 Review of experimental principles for measuring SSP 110
4.5 Experimental results 120
4.6 Rheological description of SSP 152
4.7 Scope for future research on SSP in textiles 169
4.8 Sources of further information 171
4.9 Glossary 171
4.10 Acknowledgements 171
4.11 References 171
5 Experimental methods for analyzing friction in textiles 174
B S GUPTA, North Carolina State University, USA, J O AJAYI,
Abubakar University, Nigeria and M KUTSENKO, Goulston
Technologies, USA
5.1 Introduction 174
5.2 Relevance of test methods to processing and use of textiles 175
5.3 Friction models and parameters 175
5.4 Classification of test methods 178
5.5 Fundamental test methods based on rectilinear motion 179
5.6 Measurement and characterization of friction in fabrics 196
5.7 Fabric surface roughness characterization 197
5.8 Subjective assessment of friction 204
5.9 Summary: testing friction in fabrics 208
5.10 Standard test methods and commercially available friction meters for yarns 208
5.11 Standard friction tests for staple fibers and nonwovens 216
5.12 Standard friction test and commercial apparatus for fabrics: the KES system 217
5.13 References 219

Part II Friction in particular textile fibers, structures and processes
6 Friction and surface characteristics of cotton fibers 225
Y E EL MOGAHZY, Auburn University, USA
6.1 Introduction 225
6.2 Cotton fiber surface and frictional characteristics at the
microscopic level 227
6.3 Cotton fiber surface and frictional characteristics at the
macroscopic level 230
6.4 Cotton surface treatments 246
6.5 Summary 249
6.6 References 250
7 Friction, felting and shrink-proofing of wool 253
J A RIPPON, Deakin University, Australia
7.1 Introduction 253
7.2 The chemical and physical structure of wool 253
7.3 Surface friction of wool 259
7.4 Shrinkage of wool 265
7.5 Methods of reducing the felting shrinkage of wool 269
7.6 Commercial shrink-resist processes 276
7.7 Future trends in the shrink-resist treatment of wool 282
7.8 Summary 282
7.9 References 283
8 Friction and surface characteristics of synthetic fibers 292
Y E EL MOGAHZY, Auburn University, USA
8.1 Introduction 292
8.2 The developments of synthetic fibers 292
8.3 Surface characterization of synthetic fibers 294
8.4 Surface wettability 310
8.5 Surface cleanability and decontamination 312
8.6 Surface lubrication 315
8.7 Friction behavior in wet media 319
8.8 The stick-slip phenomenon 321
8.9 Surface finish 323
8.10 Summary 325
8.11 References 325
9 The role of fiber friction in staple fiber processing 329
V K KOTHARI and A DAS, Indian Institute of Technology, India
9.1 Introduction 329
9.2 Friction in fibers 329
9.3 The importance of fiber friction in staple yarn formation 331
9.4 Changes in fiber friction during spinning 332
9.5 Control of fiber friction by spin finish 334
9.6 Fiber friction at different stages of spinning 335
9.7 Product quality 345
9.8 References 349
10 Friction in woven fabrics 351
J O AJAYI, Abubakar University, Nigeria
10.1 Introduction 351
10.2 Definition of fabric friction 352
10.3 Stick-slip motion in fabrics 352
10.4 Geometric considerations in woven fabrics 353
10.5 The effects of fabric structure on friction 356
10.6 The effects of yarn friction 366
10.7 The effects of finishing treatments on fabric friction 367
10.8 The effects of testing variables 376
10.9 Surface classification 382
10.10 Summary 383
10.11 Glossary 383
10.12 References 384
11 Finishes and treatments to control friction in textile fibers 386
M KUTSENKO and T W THEYSON, Goulston Technologies, USA
11.1 Introduction 386
11.2 Using the Stribeck lubrication curve to analyze friction in fibers 390
11.3 Fabric finishes and high speed yarn-to-solid body friction 397
11.4 Fabric finishes and low speed fiber-to-fiber friction 409
11.5 Summary 416
11.6 References 417
12 Boundary lubrication phenomena in coated textile surfaces 419
Y LI and J P HINESTROZA, Cornell University, USA
12.1 Introduction 419
12.2 Using lateral force microscopy to analyze friction behavior 420
12.3 Effect of lubricant properties on friction behavior 424
12.4 Types of textile lubricant 432
12.5 Boundary lubrication phenomena in textile materials 435
12.6 Summary 443
12.7 Glossary 444
12.8 References 444
Index 448

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