Handbook of Textile Fibre Structure, Volume 1: Fundamentals and Manufactured Polymer Fibres

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Handbook of Textile Fibre Structure
Volume 1: Fundamentals and Manufactured Polymer Fibres
Edited by S. J. Eichhorn, J.W.S. Hearle, M. Jaffe and T. Kikutani
Handbook of Textile Fibre Structure

Contents
Contributor contact details xi

Part I Introduction
1 Fibre structure: its formation and relation to
performance 3
J W S Hearle, University of Manchester, UK
1.1 Introduction 3
1.2 Formation of fibres 5
1.3 Development of ideas of fibre structure 10
1.4 Structure and performance 16
1.5 Conclusion: fibres as a special class of materials 18
1.6 Future trends 19
1.7 Sources of further information 20
1.8 References 20
2 Spectroscopic characterisation of polymer fibres 22
S J Eichhorn, University of Manchester, UK
2.1 Introduction 22
2.2 Historical perspectives on spectroscopic characterisation of polymers 22
2.3 Infrared spectroscopy of polymers 23
2.4 Raman spectroscopy of polymers 28
2.5 Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of polymers 34
2.6 Discussion and conclusions 39
2.7 References 40
3 X-ray analysis of partial crystalline fibre structure 46
P Zugenmaier, Clausthal University of Technology, Germany
3.1 Introduction 46
3.2 Diffraction 48
3.3 Theoretical considerations 54
3.4 Data reduction 64
3.5 Structure determination 70
3.6 Crystallinity and disorder 87
3.7 Reflection profile, crystallite size and disorder 98
3.8 Preferred orientation 106
3.9 Conclusions 114
3.10 References 116
4 Analysis of fibres using microscopy 121
L A Donaldson, Scion, New Zealand
4.1 Introduction 121
4.2 Optical microscopy 121
4.3 Electron microscopy 130
4.4 Infrared techniques (FTIR and Raman) 135
4.5 Scanning probe microscopy 136
4.6 X-ray tomography and other techniques 137
4.7 Identification of natural and artificial fibres by microscopy 138
4.8 Future trends 140
4.9 Acknowledgements 140
4.10 References 140

Part II Manufactured polymer fibres
5 Structure development in synthetic fiber production 157
T Kikutani, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan
5.1 Introduction 157
5.2 Basic concept of fiber structure and its formation in fiber processing 158
5.3 Fundamental mechanism of structure development 160
5.4 Analyses of structure development behavior in fiber processing 170
5.5 Conclusions and future trends 176
5.6 Sources of further information and advice 177
5.7 References 177
6 The structure of polyester fibers 181
A J East, Medical Device Concept Center, USA
6.1 Introduction 181
6.2 The main types of polyester 185
6.3 Chemistry of PET 189
6.4 Chemistry of PBT 198
6.5 Chemistry of PTT or PPT 200
6.6 Chemistry of PEN 206
6.7 Chemistry of aliphatic polyesters 209
6.8 Chemistry of disposable fibers 213
6.9 Melt-spinning polyester fibers and associated fiber processing 215
6.10 Effect of fibre structure on properties 222
6.11 Conclusions 223
6.12 Sources of further information 225
6.13 References 225
7 Polyamide fiber formation: structure, properties and characterization 232
N Vasanthan, Long Island University, USA
7.1 Introduction 232
7.2 Fiber formation 233
7.3 Characterization 240
7.4 Influence of microstructure on properties 248
7.5 Conclusions 251
7.6 Future trends 252
7.7 References 252
8 Synthesis, properties and structure of polylactic acid fibres 257
M Mochizuki, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Japan
8.1 Introduction 257
8.2 Synthesis and properties of polylactic acid 258
8.3 Properties and structure of polylactic acid fibres 263
8.4 Functional properties of polylactic acid fibres 266
8.5 Applications 272
8.6 Conclusions 274
8.7 References 274
9 The structure of polyolefin fibres 276
R R Mather, Heriot-Watt University, UK
9.1 Introduction 276
9.2 Structures and configurations of polyolefin chains 277
9.3 Arrangements of polyolefin chains 280
9.4 Crystalline structures 282
9.5 Crystal morphology 284
9.6 Fibre profile 285
9.7 Processing–structure relationships 294
9.8 Plasma treatments and auxetic fibres 299
9.9 Conclusion 300
9.10 Sources of further information 301
9.11 References 301
10 The structure of acrylic, polyvinylalcohol and polyvinylchloride fibers 305
H C Kim, Chonbuk National University, South Korea
10.1 Acrylic and modacrylic fibers 305
10.2 Polyvinylalcohol fiber 312
10.3 Polyvinylchloride fiber 318
10.4 References 323
11 The processing, structure and properties of elastomeric fibers 325
J U Otaigbe and S A Madbouly, The University of Southern
Mississippi, USA
11.1 Introduction 325
11.2 Polyurethane fibers 327
11.3 Production of polyurethane fibers 329
11.4 Polyester copolymer fibers 336
11.5 Styrene copolymers elastomeric fibers 337
11.6 Polyolefin elastomeric fibers 340
11.7 Elastomeric polymer alloy fibers 342
11.8 Conclusions and future trends 349
11.9 Acknowledgements 349
11.10 References 349
12 Production and properties of high-modulus and highstrength polyethylene fibres 352
I M Ward, University of Leeds, UK and P J Lemstra, Technical
University Eindhoven, The Netherlands
12.1 Introduction 352
12.2 Melt spun high modulus-polyethylene fibres 353
12.3 Fibres based on ultra high-molecular weight polyethylene 372
12.4 References 388
13 Structure and properties of aramid fibres 394
S van der Zwaag, Technical University Delft, The Netherlands
13.1 Introduction 394
13.2 Chemistry of aramid fibres 395
13.3 Relationship between spinning conditions and resulting microstructure 395
13.4 Relationship between microstructure and resulting properties 403
13.5 Future trends 409
13.6 Acknowledgements 409
13.7 References 410
14 The structure and properties of high-modulus, high-tenacity Vectran™ fibres 413
Y Yamamoto and J Nakagawa, Kuraray Co. Limited, Japan
14.1 Introduction 413
14.2 Thermotropic liquid crystal and its fibre formation 414
14.3 Thermotropic liquid crystal fibre (polyarylate fibre) 417
14.4 High initial modulus type 423
14.5 Properties of polyarylate fibre 423
14.6 Examples using the characteristics of VectranTM 425
14.7 Conclusion 428
14.8 References 428
15 The structure of high-modulus, high-tenacity (poly-p-phenylenebenzobisoxazole) fibres 429
T Kitagawa, Toyobo Co., Ltd, Japan
15.1 Introduction 429
15.2 Synthesis and polymerization 430
15.3 Molecular design and theoretical modulus 430
15.4 Fibre structure 430
15.5 PBO fibre structure under deformation 439
15.6 Future trends 449
15.7 Conclusions and comments 450
15.8 References and further reading 451
16 The structure of high-modulus, high-tenacity
PIPD ‘M5’ fibre 455
J W S Hearle, University of Manchester, UK
16.1 The problem of lateral weakness 455
16.2 Chemistry of PIPD 455
16.3 Crystal structure 456
16.4 Modulus calculations 458
16.5 Coarse structure and conclusion 459
16.6 References 459
17 Electrospinning and its influence on the structure of polymeric nanofibers 460
K Garg, S A Sell and G L Bowlin, Virginia Commonwealth
University, USA
17.1 Introduction 460
17.2 Types of fibers produced by electrospinning 469
17.3 Fiber structure 476
17.4 Influence of structure on properties 478
17.5 Future trends and conclusion 480
17.6 Sources of further information and advice 481
17.7 References 481
18 Melt spinning and other techniques for the production of nanofibers and microfibres 484
Y Ohkoshi, Shinshu University, Japan
18.1 Introduction 484
18.2 Conjugated melt spinning 486
18.3 Melt spinning of polymer blends 486
18.4 Laser-heated flow drawing 486
18.5 Nanofibres made by conjugated melt spinning and laser-heated flow drawing 488
18.6 Conclusion 489
18.7 References 490
Index 491

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