Intelligent Textiles and Clothing Edited by H. R. Mattila

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Intelligent Textiles and Clothing
Edited by H. R. Mattila

Contents
Contributor contact details xiii
1 Intelligent textiles and clothing – a part of our intelligent ambience 1
H MATTILA, Tampere University of Technology, Finland
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Intelligent systems 1
1.3 Applications 2
2 Methods and models for intelligent garment design 5
M UOTILA, H MATTILA and O HÄNNINEN, Tampere University of
Technology, Finland
2.1 Introduction 5
2.2 Background context 6
2.3 The underpinnings of interdisciplinarity 9
2.4 Scientific practices and research strategies for intelligent garments 12
2.5 Conclusions 15
2.6 References 16

PART I Phase change materials 19
3 Introduction to phase change materials 21
M MÄKINEN, Tampere University of Technology, Finland
3.1 Introduction 21
3.2 Heat balance and thermo-physiological comfort 22
3.3 Phase change technology 22
3.4 PCMs in textiles 23
3.5 Future prospects of PCM in textiles and clothing 30
3.6 References 32
4 Intelligent textiles with PCMs 34
W. BENDKOWSKA, Instytut Wlokiennictwa Textile Research Institute,
Poland
4.1 Introduction 34
4.2 Basic information on phase change materials 34
4.3 Phase change properties of linear alkyl hydrocarbons 36
4.4 Textiles containing PCM 39
4.5 Measurement of thermoregulating properties of fabrics
with microPCMs 55
4.6 Summary 60
4.7 Acknowledgements 60
4.8 References 60
5 The use of phase change materials in outdoor clothing 63
E A MCCULLOUGH and H SHIM, Kansas State University, USA
5.1 Introduction 63
5.2 Methodology 67
5.3 Results 72
5.4 Conclusions 80
5.5 Implications and recommendations 81
5.6 References 81

PART II Shape memory materials 83
6 Introduction to shape memory materials 85
M HONKALA Tampere University of Technology, Finland
6.1 Overview 85
6.2 Shape memory alloys 86
6.3 Shape memory ceramics 94
6.4 Magnetic shape memory materials 94
6.5 Shape memory polymers and gels 95
6.6 Future prospects of shape memory materials 100
6.7 References 101
7 Temperature sensitive shape memory polymers for smart textile applications 104
J HU and S MONDAL, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University,
Hong Kong
7.1 Introduction 104
7.2 A concept of smart materials 105
7.3 Shape memory polymer and smart materials 106
7.4 Some examples of shape memory polymer for textile applications 110
7.5 Potential use of shape memory polymer in smart textiles 115
7.6 General field of application 118
7.7 Challenges and opportunities 120
7.8 Acknowledgement 121
7.9 References 121
8 Development of shape memory alloy fabrics for composite structures 124
F BOUSSU, GEMTEX, France and J-L PETITNIOT, ONERA, France
8.1 Introduction 124
8.2 Definition and description of shape memory alloys 125
8.3 Interesting properties of shape memory alloys 126
8.4 Different kinds of alloys 132
8.5 Different kinds of applications of shape memory alloys 134
8.6 Conclusion 138
8.7 Future trends 140
8.8 Internet links 140
8.9 References 141
9 Study of shape memory polymer films for breathable textiles 143
J HU and S MONDAL, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University,
Hong Kong
9.1 Introduction 143
9.2 Breathability and clothing comfort 144
9.3 Breathable fabrics 145
9.4 Water vapor permeability (WVP) through shape memory polyurethane 152
9.5 Future trends 162
9.6 Acknowledgement 163
9.7 References 163
10 Engineering textile and clothing aesthetics using shape changing materials 165
G K STYLIOS, Heriot-Watt University, UK
10.1 Introduction 165
10.2 Innovative design concepts in textiles and clothing 165
10.3 The principles of shape changing materials and their end-uses 166
10.4 Technical requirements for shape changing textiles and clothing 169
10.5 Engineering textile and clothing aesthetics with shape memory materials 172
10.6 Aesthetic interactive applications of shape changing smart textiles 182
10.7 The concept of mood changing textiles for SMART ambience 184
10.8 Summary 186
10.9 Acknowledgement 187
10.10 References 187 

Part III Chromic and conductive materials 191
11 Introduction to chromic materials 193
P. TALVENMAA, Tampere University of Technology, Finland
11.1 Introduction 193
11.2 Photochromic materials 194
11.3 Thermochromic materials 196
11.4 Colour-changing inks 200
11.5 Electrochromic materials 201
11.6 Conclusion 203
11.7 References 204
12 Solar textiles: production and distribution of electricity coming from solar radiation. Applications 206
R R MATHER and J I B WILSON, Heriot-Watt University, UK
12.1 Introduction 206
12.2 Background 206
12.3 Solar cells 207
12.4 Textiles as substrates 209
12.5 Technological specifications 210
12.6 Challenges to be met 211
12.7 Suitable textile constructions 211
12.8 Conductive layers for PVs 213
12.9 Future trends 214
12.10 Sources of further information 215
12.11 References 216
13 Introduction to conductive materials 217
A HARLIN, Technical Research Centre of Finland, and M FERENETS,
Tampere University of Technology, Finland
13.1 Electric conductivity 217
13.2 Metal conductors 220
13.3 Ionic conductors 222
13.4 Inherently conducting polymers 223
13.5 Application technologies for conducting fibre materials 231
13.6 Future trends in conductive materials 236
13.7 References 237
14 Formation of electrical circuits in textile structures 239
T K GHOSH, A DHAWAN and J F MUTH, North Carolina State
University, USA
14.1 Introduction 239
14.2 Development of textile-based circuits 240
14.3 Fabrication processes 240
14.4 Materials used 246
14.5 Characterization 266
14.6 Applications 272
14.7 Potential for the future 276
14.8 Bibliography 277
15 Stability enhancement of polypyrrole coated textiles 283
M Y S LEUNG, J TSANG, X M TAO, C W M YUEN and Y LI,
The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong
15.1 Introduction 283
15.2 Conductivity changes of polypyrrole films on textiles 286
15.3 Stabilisation of the Ppy 290
15.4 Experimental results of stability enhancement 292
15.5 Conclusion 303
15.6 Acknowledgement 304
15.7 References 304
16 Electrical, morphological and electromechanical properties of conductive polymer fibres (yarns) 308
B KIM and V KONCAR, ENSAIT-GEMTEX Laboratory, France and
C DUFOUR, Institute IEMN, France
16.1 Introduction 308
16.2 Preparation of conductive fibres – overview 309
16.3 Experimental 311
16.4 Results and discussion 312
16.5 Applications: prototype 320
16.6 Conclusion 320
16.7 Acknowledgements 321
16.8 References 322
17 Multipurpose textile-based sensors 324
C COCHRANE, B KIM and V KONCAR, ENSAIT-GEMTEX Laboratory,
France and C DUFOUR, Institute IEMN, France
17.1 Introduction 324
17.2 Conductive polymer textile sensors 326
17.3 Conductive polymer composites (CPCs) textile sensors 331
17.4 Perspective 339
17.5 References 339
18 Textile micro system technology 342
U MÖHRING, A NEUDECK and W SCHEIBNER, TITV Greiz,
Textile Research Institut Thuringia-Vogtland, Germany
18.1 Textile micro system technology 342
18.2 Textiles are inherent microstructures 343
18.3 Goal of the application of compliant textile structures 346
18.4 First attempt: textile electronic circuit technology based on
copper wires in a lattice structure with interconnections and
interruptions 347
18.5 Galvanic modification of yarns 348
18.6 Light effects based on textiles with electrically conductive microstructures 350
18.7 Textile-based compliant mechanisms in microengineering and biomechatronics 351
18.8 References & Sources of further information 354

Part IV Applications 357
19 WareCare – Usability of intelligent materials in workwear 359
H MATTILA, P TALVENMAA and M MÄKINEN, Tampere University of
Technology, Finland
19.1 Introduction 359
19.2 Objectives 359
19.3 Methodology 360
19.4 Textile materials 361
19.5 Electronics 362
19.6 Usability testing 364
19.7 Conclusions 367
19.8 Bibliography 368
20 Intelligent textiles for medical and monitoring
applications 369
J-SOLAZ, J-M BELDA-LOIS, A-C GARCIA, R BARBERÀ, T-V DORÁ
J-A GÓMEZ, C SOLER and J M PRAT, A Instituto de Biomecanica de
Valencia, Spain
20.1 Introduction 369
20.2 Importance of intelligent textiles for healthcare 370
20.3 Potential applications of intelligent textiles 373
20.4 From medical needs to technological solutions 380
20.5 Summary and future trends 393
20.6 Acknowledgements 394
20.7 References 394
21 Context aware textiles for wearable health assistants 399
T KIRSTEIN, G TRÖSTER, I LOCHER and C KÜNG, Wearable Computing
Lab, ETH Zürich, Switzerland
21.1 Introduction 399
21.2 Vision of wearable health assistant 399
21.3 Approach 401
21.4 Electronic textile technology 402
21.5 Context recognition technology 414
21.6 Wearable components 414
21.7 Applications 415
21.8 Outlook 418
21.9 Acknowledgement 418
21.10 References 418
22 Intelligent garments in prehospital emergency care 421
N LINTU, M MATTILA and O HÄNNINEN, University of Kuopio, Finland
22.1 Introduction 421
22.2 Different cases and situations 422
22.3 Circumstances 422
22.4 Vital functions 422
22.5 Monitoring of vital functions 423
22.6 Selection of monitoring methods 425
22.7 Interpretation of monitored parameters 425
22.8 Telemedicine 425
22.9 Negative effects of transportation on vital parameters 426
22.10 Patient chart 427
22.11 Data security 427
22.12 Day surgery 427
22.13 Protective covering 428
22.14 An integrated monitoring of vital functions 429
22.15 Mobile isolation 429
22.16 Optimal smart solution for prehospital emergency care 430
22.17 Conclusions 431
22.18 References 432
23 Intelligent textiles for children 434
C HERTLEER and L VAN LANGENHOVE, Ghent University, Belgium and
R PUERS, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium
23.1 Introduction 434
23.2 State of the art 435
23.3 The intellitex suit 436
23.4 Future trends 447
23.5 Acknowledgements 448
23.6 References 448
24 Wearable biofeedback systems 450
B J MUNRO, University of Wollongong and Commonwealth Scientific
and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) Textile and Fibre
Technology, Australia and J R STEELE, T E CAMPBELL and
G G WALLACE, University of Wollongong, Australia
24.1 Introduction 450
24.2 Is there a need for biofeedback technology? 450
24.3 Are there problems with current biofeedback devices? 451
24.4 Can we provide biofeedback for joint motion? 452
24.5 The development of a functioning wearable textile sensor 453
24.6 Functional electronics 460
24.7 Interconnections 460
24.8 The Intelligent Knee Sleeve: a wearable biofeedback device in action 462
24.9 Why is the Intelligent Knee Sleeve needed? 463
24.10 Other applications of wearable biofeedback technology 467
24.11 Future directions 467
24.12 References 469
25 Applications for woven electrical fabrics 471
S SWALLOW and A P THOMPSON, Intelligent Textiles Limited, UK
25.1 Smart fabric technologies 471
25.2 Active and passive smart fabrics 472
25.3 Electrical smart fabrics 475
25.4 Products and applications 483
25.5 References 487
Index 489

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