Introduction to Work Study, Fourth (Revised) Edition Edited By George Kanawaty

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Introduction to Work Study, Fourth (Revised) Edition
Edited By George Kanawaty
Introduction to Work Study,

Contents
Preface to the fourth (revised) edition V 

Part One. Productivity, work study and the human factor
1. Productivity and the quality of life 3
1. Basic needs, quality of life and productivity 3
2. What is productivity? 4
3. Productivity in the individual enterprise 5
4. The task of management 6
2. Work study and productivity 9
1. Howthe total time of a job is made up 9
2. Interrelationship of the various methods used to reduce ineffective time 13
3. Work study, the approach 17
1. Why is work study valuable? 17
2. Techniquesof work study and their relationship 19
3. Basic procedure of work study 21
4. Work study and production management 21
4. The human factor in the application of work study 25
1. The human factor in enterprise operations 25
2. Work study and management 26
3. Work study and the supervisor 27
4. Work study and the worker 29
5. The work study practitioner 32
5. Working conditions and the working environment 35
1. General considerations 35
2. Occupational safety and health organization 36
3. Safety criteria 37
4. The prevention of industrial accidents 39
5. Working premises 42
6. Good housekeeping 42
7. Lighting 45
8. Noise and vibration 50
9. Climatic conditions 55
10. Exposure to toxic substances 60
11. Personal protective equipment 61
12. Ergonomics 62
13. Working time 65
14. Work-related welfare facilities 70

Part Two. Method study
6. Method study and the selection of jobs 75
1. The approach to method study 75
2. Selecting the work to be studied 76
3. Limiting the scope of the work to be studied 79
7. Record, examine, develop 81
1. Record the facts 81
2. Examine critically: The questioning technique 94
3. Develop the improved method 105
8. Movement of workers in the working area 109
1. Movement of workers and material 109
2. The string diagram 109
3. The worker-type flow process chart 116
4. The multiple activity chart 120
5. The travel chart 132
9. Methods and movements at the workplace 139
1. General considerations 139
2. The principles of motion economy 140
3. Classification of movements 143
4. Further notes on workplace layout and simplification of movements 143
5. Noteson the design of jigs, tools and fixtures 148
6. Machine controls and displays of dials 149
7. The two-handed process chart 149
8. Micromotion study 155
9. Other recording techniques 156
10. The development of improved methods 156
10. Evaluate, define, install, maintain 159
1. Evaluating alternative methods 159
2. Defining the improved method 161
3. Installing the improved method 162
4. Preparing to make the changes 164
5. Controlling the change-over 167
6. Maintaining the new method 157
7. Conclusion 168
11. Method study in the office 169
1. The importance of method study in the office 169
2. The procedure for improving methods of work in the office 170
3. Design and control of forms 176
4. Office layout 181
5. Quality control in the office 184

Part Three. Selected production management techniques
12. Production design and materials utilization 187
1. Product design 187
2. Utilization of materials 192
13. Quality control 195
1. Meaning and scope 195
2. Statistical quality control 196
3. The Taguchi approach 198
4. Total quality control 199
5. Work study and quality control 200
14. Layout, handling and process planning 201
1. Layout 201
2. The handling of material 206
3. Developments in manufacturing technology 211
4. Process planning 215
5. Work study, layout, handling and process planning 217
15. Production planning and control 221
1. The scope of production planning and control 221
2. Production planning and control in continuous production 222
3. Production planning and control in intermittent production 222
4. Planning and control of special projects 224
5. Work study and production planning and control 227
16. Inventory control 229
1. The nature of the inventory problem 229
2. Traditional approaches to inventory control 229
3. Just-in-time inventory method 232
4. Work study and inventory control 235
17. Maintenance 237
1. The scope of maintenance 237
2. Organization of maintenance 238
3. Work study and maintenance 240

Part Four. Work measurement
18. General remarks on work measurement 243
1. Definition 243
2. The purpose of work measurement 243
3. The uses of work measurement 246
4. The basic procedure 247
5. The techniques of work measurement 247
19. Work sampling and structured estimating 249
1. The need for work sampling 249
2. Afew words about sampling 250
3. Establishing confidence levels 250
4. Determination of sample size 252
5. Making random observations 254
6. Conducting the study 257
7. Rated work sampling 260
8. Group sampling techniques 260
9. Using work sampling 261
10. Structured estimating 262
20. Time study: The equipment 265
1. What is time study? 265
2. Time study equipment 265
3. Time study forms 270
4. Other equipment 280
21. Time study: Selecting and timing the job 281
1. Selecting the job 281
2. The approach to the worker 282
3. Steps in making a time study 286
4. Obtaining and recording information 286
5. Checking the method 288
6. Breaking the job into elements 289
7. Deciding on the elements 291
8. Sample size 292
9. Timing each element: Stop-watch procedure 294
22. Time study: Rating 297
1. The qualified worker 297
2. The "average" worker 299
3. Standard rating and standard performance 301
4. Comparing the observed rate of working with the standard 305
5. What is rated? 306
6. Factors affecting the rate of working 307
7. Scales of rating 309
8. How the rating factor is used 311
9. Recording the rating 312
23. Time study: From study to standard time 313
1 Summarizing the study 313
2. Preparing the study summary sheet 314
3. Extension: The calculation of basic time 315
4. The selected time 316
5. Completing the study summary sheet 323
6. Electronic time study 323
7. How many studies? 324
8. The analysis of studies sheet 327
9. Work content 328
10. Allowances 329
11. Calculation of allowances 330
12. Relaxation allowances 331
13. Other allowances 333
14. The standard time 336
15. Work measurement in the office 337
24. Setting time standards for work with machines 343
1. Plant and machine control 343
2. Restricted work 346
3. One worker and one machine 348
4. Calculation of relaxation allowances 350
5. Unoccupied time allowance 353
6. Multiple machine work 356
25. Example of a time study 361
26. Predetermined time standards 381
1. Definition 381
2. Origins 382
3. Advantages of PTS systems 383
4. Criticisms of PTS systems 383
5. Different forms of PTS systems 384
6. Use of PTS systems 387
7. Application of PTS systems 394
27. Standard data 409
1. Major considerations 409
2. Developing the standard data 410
3. Use of PTS systems to develop standard data 417
4. Externally sourced standard data 426
5. Computerized measurement systems 427
28. The use of time standards 431
1. Definition of the work covered by time standards 431
2. The work specification 432
3. The standard unit of work 434
4. Production planning and the utilization of plant and human resources 435
5. Estimating production costs 436
6. Standard costing and budgetary control 437
7. Incentive schemes 437
8. Organization of an information system associated with work measurement 438

Part Five. From analysis to synthesis
29. Combining methods and tasks: New forms of work organization 443
1. Method study and work measurement: Basic tools for job design 443
2. Design of individual work roles 445
3. Design of group work in production 452
4. Design of product-oriented organizations 464
5. Design of enterprise-oriented organizations 466
6. Criteria of good work organization: Some concluding remarks 471

Part Six. Appendices
1. Glossary of terms used 477
2. Check-list of useful questions in developing a new method of work 483
3. Example of tables used to calculate relaxation allowances 489
4. Conversion factors 499
5. Selected bibliography 503
index 507

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