Manufactured Fibre Technology Edited by V.B. Gupta and V.K. Kothari

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Manufactured Fibre Technology
Edited by V.B. Gupta and V.K. Kothari
Manufactured Fibre Technology Edited by V.B. Gupta and V.K. Kothari

Contents
List of contributors
Preface
Acknowledgements
51 units and symbols
Note on equivalence and equivalent weight
1 Introduction
V.B. Gupta and V.K. Kothari
1.1 Definition and classification
1.2 Evolution of manufactured fibres
1.3 Fibre-forming processes
1.4 Fibre products and properties
1.5 Production trends
1.6 Application areas
1.7 Scope of this book
References
2 Structural principles of polymeric fibres
V.B. Gupta
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Molecular size and interaction
2.3 Molecular orientation and crystallinity in fibres
2.4 Polymers as fibres, plastics and rubbers
2.5 Fibre morphology
2.6 Thermal transitions
References
3 Basic principles of fluid flow during fibre spinning
V.B. Gupta and y.c. Bhuvanesh
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Shear flow
3.3 Elongational flow
3.4 Molecular theories of fluid flow
3.5 Spinnability and flow instabilities
References
4 Melt-spinning processes 67
V.B. Gupta
4.1 Introduction 67
4.2 The melt-spinning line 69
4.3 Melt-spinning variables and conditions for
continuous spinning 78
4.4 Special features of high speed spinning 80
4.5 The role of some critical parameters and their variation
along the spinline 83
4.6 Structure formation during spinning 90
4.7 Integrated spin-draw process 94
4.8 Other techniques to produce fibrous structures 96
References 96
5 Computer simulation of melt-spinning 98
V.M. Nadkarni
Notations
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Theoretical background
5.3 Spinline orientation
5.4 Sensitivity analysis
5.5 Process implications
5.6 Stress-orientation relationship for PET
5.7 Case study for process optimization
5.8 Case studies for product development
5.9 Conclusions
References
6 Solution-spinning processes
V.B. Gupta
6.1 Introduction
6.2 The process variables for solution-spinning
6.3 Dry-spinning
6.4 Wet-spinning
6.5 Development of structure and morphology during solution-spinning
6.6 Some salient comparative features of the spinning processes
References
7 Spin finishes for manufactured fibres 139
P. Bajaj
7.1 Introduction 139
7.2 Properties of spin finishes 140
7.3 Role of spin finishes 140
704 Spin finish components 145
7.5 Spin finish application techniques 147
7.6 Spin finishes for staple fibre production and processing 151
7.7 Spin finishes for filament yarns 154
7.8 Influence of spin finish on dyeing of yarn/fabric 160
7.9 Analysis of spin finish formulations 160
7.10 Problems encountered in finish application 167
References 168
8 Drawing of melt-spun fibres 170
AK Sengupta
8.1 Introduction 170
8.2 The drawing unit 171
8.3 The drawing behaviour of thermoplastic polymers 172
8.4 Influence of drawing on structure and properties of fibres 178
8.5 Orientation stretching for high strength 184
8.6 High speed spinning and the spin-draw process 185
8.7 Drawing of preoriented yarns and draw-warping 186
References 186
9 Heat-setting of thermoplastic fibres 188
A.K. Sengupta
9.1 Introduction 188
9.2 Nature of set 190
9.3 Heat-setting behaviour of polyamide and polyester fibres 193
904 Heat-setting of cellulose triacetate fibres 199
9.5 Settability and the measurement of the degree of set 200
References 202
10 Characterization of polymers and fibres 203
A.K. Gupta
10.1 Introduction 203
10.2 Characterization at the molecular level 204
10.3 Characterization of physical structure 219
lOA Thermal characterization 238
10.5 Microscopic characterization 243
References 246
11 Testing of manufactured fibres 248
V.K. Kothari
11.1 Introduction 248
11.2 Fineness 248
11.3 Fibre crimp 250
11.4 Tensile properties 251
11.5 Evenness testing 256
11.6 Frictional properties 263
11.7 Shrinkage behaviour 264
11.8 Entanglement testing 267
References 270
12 Poly(ethylene terephthalate) fibres 271
V.B. Gupta, A.K. Mukherjee and 5.5. Cameotra 271
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Polymer production 272
12.3 Fibre production 296
12.4 Structure and mechanical properties of fibres 311
12.5 Application areas 313
References 315
13 Nylon 6 and nylon 66 fibres 318
B.L. Deopura and A.K. Mukherjee
13.1 Introduction 318
13.2 Nylon 6 polymer production 319
13.3 Nylon 66 polymer production 332
13.4 Degradation reactions 338
13.5 Additives 339
13.6 Fibre production 340
13.7 Post-spinning operations 349
13.8 Glass transition temperature and fibre structure 351
13.9 Mechanical behaviour 353
13.10 Applications 356
References 356
14 Speciality polyamide and polyester yams: an industrial approach to their production and rheology 360
T.Manabe
14.1 Introduction 360
14.2 Production of modified polymers for making yarns with different dyeability characteristics 361
14.3 Antistatic nylon and polyester yarns 374
14.4 Flame retardant yarns 380
14.5 Polyester yams with microgrooves, microvoids and microcraters 382
14.6 Super micro filament yams by conjugated bicomponent yam spinning 384
14.7 Fibres with non-circular cross-section and hollow fibres 386
14.8 Melt rheology during spinning of speciality yam 394
References 404
15 Acrylic fibres 406
P. Bajaj
15.1 Introduction 406
15.2 Polymer manufacture 407
15.3 Influence of polymerization conditions on properties of acrylic polymer 415
15.4 Characterization of acrylonitrile polymers 420
15.5 Spinning processes 425
15.6 Tow processing 442
15.7 Mechanical properties of acrylic fibres 448
15.8 Speciality fibres 448
References 453
16 Polypropylene fibres 457
Kushal Sen
16.1 Introduction 457
16.2 Polymerization 458
16.3 Stabilization against degradation 464
16.4 Fibre production 468
16.5 Structure development during solidification 473
16.6 Fibre properties 476
16.7 Application areas 478
References 478
17 Rayon fibres 480
A.K. Sengupta
17.1 Introduction 480
17.2 The viscose process 481
17.3 Advances in viscose rayon technology 493
17.4 Viscose fibre variants 497
17.5 Alternatives to the viscose process 503
References 513
18 Manufactured fibres for high performance, industrial and non-conventional applications 514
Satish Kumar and V.B. Gupta
18.1 Introduction 514
18.2 Fibres for industrial applications
18.3 Fibres for high performance applications
18.4 Fibres for non-conventional applications
References
19 Spunbonding and melt-blowing processes
B.C. Goswami
19.1 Introduction
19.2 Spunbonded fabrics
19.3 Melt-blown fabrics
References
20 Reuse of polymer and fibre waste
P. Bajaj and N.D. Sharma
20.1 Introduction
20.2 Utilization of PET waste
20.3 Recovery from nylon 6 waste
20.4 Nylon 66 yarn waste
20.5 Polypropylene yarn waste
20.6 Acrylic waste
References
Index

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